Important Facts About Transcreation

What is Transcreation?

Transcreation is a relatively new idea. It is adopting a message used in one language into another, taking into account the intention, style, context and tone of the original message. A well-transcreated message will evoke exactly the same emotions and will project the same implications in both the target language and the source language.

Transcreation is used more and more by businesses for their advertising campaigns for the global market. A well-transcreated advertisement will incorporate the language and culture of the targeted market. It is not just words that transcreation handles it considers the images that are included in the creative message by making sure they fit in with the local market that is being targeted. When does someone ask what is a translation? it can be explained by using other phrases such as:

  • creative translations;
  • localization;
  • international copy adaptations;
  • marketing translations;
  • internationalization;
  • free-style translations;
  • cultural adaptations.

The above words and phrases basically take the essence of a message and re-create it into a second language. The term transcreation actually originates from the combining of two words which are creation and translation. In a nutshell, transcreation isn’t just translating a message word for word. Creativity is used in a process where the transcreation agency employs professionals who specialise in considering the cultural variations that exist in different countries and make the most of them so that the marketing message benefits the business.

The Origins of the Word ‘Transcreation’

It was in the 1960s and 70s when the word transcreation was first coined and it was used in relation to the translation of creative advertisements. Transcreation agencies then started to take the term a step further and use it for the translation of highly creative language. These agencies used transcreation as a way of distinguishing their translation services from the more general translations offered by translation services.

Today, transcreation is now in its element and is used by transcreation agencies and marketing companies as a service offered to businesses who want to penetrate the global market and attract the global customer to buy their products.

An Example of a Transcreation Project

In 2004, Marvel Comics & the Gotham Entertainment Group produced a comic book for Indian customers which featured a Spider-Man who was born in India called Pavitr Prabhakar. Prabhakar, dressed in a dhoti takes on Rakshasa, a demon, against backdrops like Taj Mahal, not New York City. The CEO of Marvel Comics & the Gotham Entertainment Group said it was the first transcreation of a Western concept of Spider-Man made relevant to an Indian audience, attracting Indians to buy the comic book.

The Role of the Transcreation Agency

Most transcreative work is performed by a transcreation agency mainly for the advertising industry such as the production of, posters, flyers and brochures, TV & radio advertisements aimed at potential customers. Increasingly, transcreation is used on websites. In order to be effective, advertising has to touch both the hearts and minds of the potential customer.

Transcreative work, conducted by a transcreation agency, transcends both cultural and language boundaries in order to achieve a global marketing strategy that is effective. The copy needs to be translated well in the first place but taking into consideration other factors like mores, culture, dialects, humour and context are key to successful transcreation.

If an advertisement appears to lack any respect for local values, cultures and beliefs the transcreation agency will have failed as this sort of advertising would have a negative effect on any potential customers. Companies realise the importance of transcreation so to meet the challenges they choose to use a translation agency to produce their global advertising materials.

Who Produces Transcreation?

The majority of transcreation is undertaken by copywriters who specialise in transcreation. Generally, a successful transcreation is performed by somebody who shares the same native language as the targeted audience. In order for effective transcreation to be produced the native language copywriters are required to have a great deal of knowledge of the targeted market, perfect language skills, and be creative when adapting the message for the targeted market.

In summary, transcreation is more than translation because its focus is not on the literal text, but on getting the same emotional response in the new targeted market as it would get from those who speak the source language. Due to the use of idiom and the variety of the local usage of language word to word translations are no longer considered to be adequate. This means the best translation will consider not only grammar, vocabulary and syntax but also idiomatic and local usages of language by the targeted audience while including the context and text of the source document. This has all developed in relation to the demands of global markets where companies compete to sell their goods to unfamiliar markets.

Unusual Facts About Languages

The origin of human language

No-one knows for sure just how old human language is, i.e. the capacity of evolving humans to use a spoken language to communicate. It is presumed that it developed in stages, and not just all at once. Humans are basically a social, co-operative species of primate and language serves to increase the success of co-operation. As humans spread out of Africa (according to the most up to date theories about human evolution), the number of languages would have gradually changed and increased in overall number.

Linguistic diversity comes from geographic isolation

Geographic isolation is the main factor in language creation. The island with the most diverse languages is the island of New Guinea, which is divided into modern-day Papua New Guinea to the east and Irian Jaya, a contested part of Indonesia to the west. There are over 800 separate languages recorded in Papua New Guinea alone and probably a similar number in Irian Jaya. That’s nearly a quarter of the world total of 7,000 languages! The major reasons for this incredible number of languages are that historically, the human communities in New Guinea have been separated from each other by huge geographical barriers: jagged mountain ranges, impenetrable forests, volcanic islands surrounded by treacherous seas and vast, fast flowing rivers.

The Most Spoken Languages

Most of the 7,000 languages currently spoken are spoken by only relatively small numbers of people, but on the other hand, some languages are spoken by huge numbers of people. , The most spoken language is Chinese, which has around a billion people who speak it as a native language. This is followed by Spanish, most of whose speakers live in Central and South America and the Caribbean. The third most commonly spoken language is English. Other languages with large numbers of speakers include Arabic, Hindi, Indonesian, French, Portuguese and Russian.

Artificial Languages

Some languages aren’t real languages at all, or at least they have been created by people at one time or another for a particular reason. Esperanto was created in the nineteenth century, hopefully, to be used as an international language that wasn’t tied too much to any individual country’s national language. In fact, it is much more like a Latin language and despite the fact that there are still people who speak it, it never caught on.

Other rather more esoteric ‘languages’ are imaginary languages like Elvish, spoken by the fictional Elves of J.R.R. Tolkien in the lord of the Rings trilogy. Amazingly, there are over 200 of these imaginary languages that have been created.

Perhaps much more useful are official sign languages. These are used by most countries to communicate with the deaf. In fact, in some countries, sign language might be the only other ‘official’ language apart from the main national language spoken by most.

Words that Sound Like the Sounds Of Nature – Onomatopoeia

Many words have been taken from sounds in nature. These may be totally inanimate like the sound of the wind or waves or trains chugging over the tracks. They may be sounds made by animals and birds. Strangely enough, onomatopoeia, which is the name for this origin of human language, is not entirely uniform. For example, the sound of the crow is ‘go-geh-go-go’ in Chinese, but ‘co-co-ro-co’ in Catalan, ‘kikeriki’ in German and ‘cockle-doodle-doo’ in English! In Bengal, India, where cows are sacred to Hindus at least, they make a noise which in Bengali is rendered ‘hamba, hamba.’ In English, the very same cows go ‘mooooo!’

Letters and Characters

The spoken language was converted into a script when human societies first developed irrigation and organised agriculture. Hebrew, Sanskrit, Basque and Sumerian were some of the first languages to be written down. There are many ways to write down all those 7,000 languages. Some like Chinese, Korean and Japanese use characters. Others use the Latinised alphabet like English, German and Indonesian. There is the Cyrillic alphabet used by Russian and Bulgarian. Then there is a myriad of other languages that are mutually unintelligible and use their own scripts like Hindi, Thai and Arabic.

Some languages have never been written down before very recently and their alphabet has almost been invented by others who have learned their language, often to promote the Bible. Of the languages that use the Latin alphabet, English gets along just fine with 26 letters, while Rotokas, a Papua New Guinean language only uses 11. Khmer, the official language of Cambodia, uses an incredible 74.

Just to show that these scripts are limited in comparison, consider Chinese, which can boast 50,000 different characters. This might seem far too many if you are only learning Chinese for the first time, but apparently, only 2,000 characters are ever used most of the time, which cuts down your learning time considerably!

How Much Time Does it Take To Learn a New Language?

Three months is sometimes the time frame put on learning a new language. Some people say that new learners put this time limit as that is the standard length of a visitor visa to many countries. This is often when many people choose to study a new language. Also, the restricted time given on a visa sets a deadline for learning the new language which may keep some people motivated to learn the language as quickly as possible.

Factors Determining the Time for Learning a New Language

Learning a language depends on two key factors which are

  • the learner’s attitude; and
  • the time set to learn the language available.

Discipline is one of the main factors as learning any new language requires disciplining oneself to study. It is not only your dedication but also the time set aside for the work that needs to be done to become fluent in the language. There is no hard and fast timeframe that dictates how to learn a new language fast. However, there are some guidelines that have been set by the U.S. Foreign Service Institute (FSI) which conveniently divides languages into groups showing the difficulty to learn for those who speak English:

Group 1:

Italian, German, French, Indonesian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian and Swahili

Group 2:

Burmese, Bulgarian, Hindi, Greek, Urdu and Persian,

Group 3:

Lao, Cambodian, Amharic, Czech, Thai, Hebrew, Finnish, Hungarian, Vietnamese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Russian, Turkish

Group 4:

Chinese, Arabic, Korean, Japanese,

The FSI Describes 5 Proficiency Levels as Follows:

  1. Elementary proficiency is when a speaker is able to speak enough of the language to communicate when travelling in relation to courtesy requirements.
  2. Restricted working proficiency is when the speaker can satisfy the language requirements for day to day interactions but not for work requirements.
  3. Minimal professional proficiency is when the speaker can communicate in the language with enough structural accuracy and sufficient vocabulary in order to be to take part effectively in the majority of informal and formal conversations related to social, practical as well as professional topics.
  4. Complete professional proficiency means the speaker can accurately match the language requirements required for use in professional situations.
  5. Bilingual or native proficiency is when the speaker is able to speak the language as if s/he were a native speaker.

FSI research found that learning a new language takes 480 hours to achieve basic fluency in the first group of languages and 720 hours for the second to the fourth group of languages. This simplified means if a learner puts in ten hours per day learning a language maybe by using resources to learn a language online by choosing one of the many online language courses it will take 48 days to reach basic fluency.

For the harder to learn languages it would take 72 days. One would assume that the average learner would not be able to work 10 hours a day without a break for 48 and 72 days so allowing for time off it would take around two months for the easier languages and three months for the more difficult languages. Of course, if you put in just five hours per day the time would be doubled to reach a basic level of fluency.

Sample Day for How to Learn a New Language Fast

Hours Activity
8-12 Listening recordings, reading and learning new vocabulary
12-2 Break but still engaged in listening to the new language
2-3 Learning new grammar
3-4 Practise writing the new language
4-5 Speaking practice either using Skype or talking with locals if possible
5-7 Relaxation time
7-10 Relaxing but engaged in the language by watching or going to the movies, listening to songs, or engaging with friends who speak the new language

 

Immersing in a language is easier than it has ever been as you don’t necessarily have to go to the country where the language is spoken you can engage with online courses, chat rooms and social media in order to get the exposure you need to gain fluency in a new language. If you want to go from level 2 onto level 4 it is going to take a lot longer and a lot more dedication than the level 2 so you have to keep up your 10 hourly daily routines wherever you are.

One of the key failings of language learning is not getting sufficient oral practice to back up the theory you have learned. Fortunately, there are so many online resources you can download to help you learn the language online such as videos and podcasts which you can use in any way you choose but it is a useful way of learning a new language as well as paying for online language courses. You will see the benefits of learning a new language unfold as you become more proficient.

The Process of Applying For Document Translation

Before you apply for document translation services a number of important points need to be considered before the process of document translation begins:

1. You need to establish your targeted language(s) by considering what countries or regions you need translations for. For example, if you want an English to Spanish document translation your translation services will ask you which countries your translations are targeting. This is because there are many parts of the world that speak Spanish and not all of them share exactly the same grammar and terminology.

A few companies target, for example, the American Spanish speaking market using a Spanish translator while other companies use an English to Spanish document translation services to undertake translations into what is termed “Universal Spanish” which focuses on the Spanish speaking market.

2. Put some time into checking your documents before you send them to your chosen translation services. The second pair of eyes will help to iron out any mistakes and ambiguities or even colloquialisms and idiomatic language which may be hard to translate. You don’t want the translation project manager responsible for your translation to return it to you to make changes when you are trying to meet a deadline.

3. Once the document is ready to be sent to your chosen translation services decide on the deadline so that you can get this approved before the translation begins. You have to allow for the fact that most translation services will send you a draft of the translation for you to check before finalising the translation. The number of words you want to be translated will affect the time it takes to complete. For example, a translation of 100,000 words could take at least 9 days for a translator to complete.

This allows for you to look over the draft before the translation is finalized. Most translators create accurate translations of up to 2500 word each day. However, if you require a document to be translated into several languages, this may take a little longer depending on the availability of suitable translators. If the document involves a lot of technical terms you can expect the translator to take a little longer as s/he will want to ensure the translation is completely accurate.

4. Before you apply for document translation services, ask them what the best file format is to use. Once you have agreed you have to ensure you know how to use the file after the translation has been completed.

5. Before the process of the document, translation starts to ensure you write easy to understand instructions for the translator so there is no delay in the translation.

6. Before the translation begins it is useful to create a glossary of your preferred terminology which helps the translation team from the very beginning. This is particularly important if your document contains a lot of technical terms. It speeds up the translation process because the translator does not need to spend time thinking about which terms are the most appropriate. It usually takes quite a bit of discussion before the glossary is compiled and agreed upon by all those involved in the translation process.

Once the glossary is ready the translation can commence and the glossary will be used during the translation. This helps to ensure there is consistency in the use of terminology throughout the translation process. Also, the glossaries created for one translation project can be used for later translations.

7. Before you start the process of document translation you should establish what budget you have for the translation project. Most document translation services offer a rate per word. However, if you stick with the same document translation services the cost will not be so much as the translator will use translation memory with any new translation.

During the process of document translation, the translator will translate the text in the document from the source language to the target language while paying careful attention to the following:

  • the accurate transferring of content;
  • the use of appropriate terminology;
  • ensuring consistency in language including grammar;
  •  accurate spelling and punctuation;
  • appropriate layout and presentation.

8. Proofreading and editing are the final stages of any translation project. When you apply for document translation services you will be told the proofreading will be done by a translator who is equally qualified as the primary translator. The proofreader will check the content to ensure accuracy as well as grammar, syntax and punctuation. Formatting and any graphics or layout modifications are made at the proofreading stage before the finalizing of the translation have taken place and it is sent to you for the final approval.

9. Once you have approved the draft the translation services will issue the final copy of the translation which will be sent by email. A hard copy is usually available as well.

What are Localisation and Globalisation in Relation to Translation?

In many ways today the world shares more than it has ever been able to do in history. People and businesses use smartphones to enable instant to connect while travellers and immigrants cross borders in search of new experiences and improved lives and opportunities. The rise of the internet to a global scale allows information and ideas to be shared in real time. History books and language classes are a thing of the past as virtually everything can be learnt or done online.

Businesses in the world market

The acronym GILT has been created by researchers referring to business activities. It means globalisation, internationalisation, localisation, and translation. Apart from the word “translation” which speaks for itself, what do the other 3 terms mean to businesses?
Localization, globalization, and internationalization appear to resemble one another but they are in fact different concepts. Understanding the difference between localisation and globalisation what the differences are among these three terms helps to make sure that a brand’s product message can have an effect globally.

What exactly is globalisation?

To be clear about it the term “globalisation” means any activity which unites cultures, people, and economies of many countries so as to bring them closer together. In the business sense “globalisation” refers to the practices which organizations use to connect with customers and business partners throughout the world. Amazon and eBay are classic examples of business globalisation as products are easy to purchase from either a business or individual from every corner of the world.

Many favourite consumer electronics are manufactured from raw materials found in India, which are transported to China which makes the electronics which are then transported and sold to countries like the USA. McDonald’s and other fast food chains like KFC and Pizza Hut have marketed their logo, brand and food so aggressively that they have gained enough customers to set up franchises in hundreds of countries throughout the world. The easily recognisable logo “swoosh” belonging to Nike has transcending different languages cultures to become a household name globally. So “globalisation” in business means any activity or process which operates in different overseas markets, from its product design to its marketing.

Consumers and companies both benefit from globalisation as there is a greater variety of consumer goods to choose from at competitive prices and businesses are able to increase their profits by engaging in business in the global market. These have both been fuelled by the rise in the internet and the expansion of fast, international air travel.

What is localization?

Through internationalisation, products are adapted and become user-friendly for customers in many different countries. As soon as internationalisation has taken place, localization commences. The difference between localization and globalisation is that localisation goes a step further as it is the actual process of adopting a good to specific targeted markets following the process of internationalisation. So you cannot call a business a globalised concern unless it has gone through localisation. This is the difference between localisation and globalisation.

McDonald’s as an example of localisation

Many of McDonald’s restaurants set up in Israel sell kosher drink and food and they are not open on the Sabbath or during Jewish holidays. In India McDonald’s has now opened a restaurant which is meat-free because in India people do not consume pork or beef. In both of these two cases, McDonald’s has kept on its brand identity but adapted its services and products to suit local markets. These are clear examples of localisation.

The translation is part of the localisation

Translation and localisation cannot be separated. When products are marketed in a country that does not speak the same language as the marketing company translation is required. This is not just a straightforward word for word translation but the language has to be adapted to suit the culture of the targeted market. This is when the relationship between localisation and translation takes place. When localising a product in a different language, the business has to get some things right. This includes getting:

  • naming conventions right such as the use of last names;
  • telephone number formatting right;
  • correct time and date formats, like MM/DD/YYYY and DD/MM/YYYY;
  • currency both symbol and amount right;
  • the writing direction right which in most languages is left to right but in Arabic and Hebrew it’s right to left and it is vertical in a few Asian languages;
  • the system of measurement right as either metric or imperial;
  • punctuation right like quotation marks which are “in English, low quotes „in German, and guillemets «in the French language;
  • electrical voltages, plugs and frequencies right;
  • legal requirements right.

An example of successful localization

A successfully localised product is purported to be Apple’s Siri virtual assistant. When users request a weather report from Siri or directions on how to get to a certain address, Siri is able to offer the answer in either Celsius or Fahrenheit or miles or kilometres respectively, depending on where the user is located. Users, if they wish, may choose Sri’s voice to be in their preferred accent which includes South African, American or Australian English

So, when considering Localization v/s Globalization or the difference between localization and globalization, localisation goes a step further by adopting a product to suit the culture of the targeted market while performing a culturally relevant translation.

What is the Role of Corporate Translations?

Corporate translations are all about providing corporate translation services for small and large corporations. The reality of business today is that much of it has had to deal with the rapid expansion of the global economy. Any business of any size that fails to respond to the presence and promise of the international market is unlikely to prosper and grow.

An essential factor that arises from this international business perspective is that communication must be effective across a multitude of language barriers. This, in a nutshell, explains the role of company translations. While many larger corporations maintain in-house teams of translators to do all their translations for them, other companies use independent translation agencies that are specialized in providing the business translation.

The breadth of corporate translation services

The main bulk of corporate translation services involve the translation of:

  • accounting documents;
  • business agreements;
  • correspondence;
  • financial documents;
  • insurance documents; and
  • marketing documents.

Varied skills for varied purposes

A lot of corporate translation is highly technical or at least uses highly technical language which means that translation services that provide services for corporations acting in the international arena need to have specialized translators. For example, the translation of business agreements, contracts and deeds require knowledge of legal terminology in the languages involved in the translation.

Marketing documents and websites, on the other hand, require different skills that are more tuned towards cultural nuances and may require specialized localization services.
Similarly, corporate communication can involve the whole gamut of present-day means of communication from formal letters to email correspondence to the use of social media and the maintenance of helplines and technical support by telephone contact and through company websites. None of this would be possible without a diverse corporate translation service, which can adapt to the multitude of translation and language skills involved in business communication.

The most common languages in demand for corporate translations

It would be no secret which languages are in most demand when it comes to corporate translations. These languages are the languages of the most important of the world’s powerhouses: English, German, French, Japanese, Chinese and Russian. Some of the languages owe their popularity as a result of their international importance, such as English and French. Others are important because of the rapid growth in the local economy which has international significance such as Chinese. Others still are popular not so much because of the economic perspective but the sheer numbers of native speakers. Japanese, Hindi, Indonesian / Malay and Arabic spring to mind.

The role of corporate interpreters

Interpreters are as important as translators when it comes to servicing the international communication needs of corporations. These two services are complementary. There are some professional agencies that can provide both translators and interpreters, although generally speaking, they tend to be separate entities. Translators mainly deal with converting text from one language to another, while interpreters are used to converting the spoken word from one language to another.

A business team that is visiting another country where the language is different is going to have to use an interpreting service to help them communicate, even though all the groundwork before the visit was probably helped by translators. Similarly, a company website may be translated into a number of other key languages, but its helpline must be manned by interpreters capable of handling questions in all those different languages.

Corporate translations for the Internet

Much of the business of corporations these days is via the Internet. All companies of any size will have a company website, part of which helps to explain what the company does, its size, history and what it provides in services or products. It may also have a more dynamic interface in which international customers can communicate directly with the company, searching for information, ordering goods, making enquiries and so on.

Many companies also use social media for promotional purposes. New developments, whether these are to do with the expansion of the company’s presence in a particular area or because of a new technological fix, can quickly be communicated by a social media presence. Many professionals and corporate executives these days use their social media presence, e.g. on sites like LinkedIn, for their personal profile. These profiles are avidly examined for promotional and appointment purposes. Because of the internationalisation of much corporate business, this is another area that demands effective translation services.

The Internet is also widely used by corporations these days for conferencing purposes. It saves a lot of money on first-class air flights and accommodation. However, to be effective, an online conference has to be well set up with a multi-language interpreting team and good technology.

Conclusion

Corporations are increasingly international if they are not so already. The meaning of corporate translations is intrinsically tied to the need for effective cross-language communication for modern communications. This demand is not likely to diminish any time soon unless the world adopts one common international language or the international community goes into reverse economically, neither of which seems very likely.

Translation for International Students

One of the most important translations for international students is certified student documents translations. They are crucial when applying for a job overseas, getting a visa, or submitting an application for a university course. Many immigration authorities will only accept certified translated documents before they are accepted as legal documents to study at one of their country’s educational institutions.

There are several documents that will need translations before international students can begin to study in an overseas country. It is important for the university to evaluate international students’ academic credentials so they can decide if the international student has reached the equivalent standard to a local student. Translations are required for the following:

  • school and college certificates;
  • degree and diploma certificates if the course sought is at postgraduate level;
  • academic transcripts showing the previous school or college course content.

A certified translation is a requirement so that every class, grade, course credit and the cumulative grade averages can be properly converted to match the standard of local qualifications.

International Students and the Immigration Process

International students will not be able to enter a country to study unless s/he has been thoroughly vetted by the country’s immigration service. For this to take place translated copies of key documents are requested by most immigration authorities. These include birth certificate, marriage certificate (if applicable), bank statements, police clearance certificate and any other documents you may get asked to translate. The visa application will need to include the offer of a place on a course but this will be in the host country’s language so it will not need a certified translation. Each of the certified translations will typically have a signed certification form attached to each it.

What is a Certified Student Documents Translation for International Students?

A certified student document translation is when an international student is asked to get a translation of documents required both for acceptance on a course by the college/university concerned and for the immigration authority responsible for issuing a study visa for the student. Depending on the country the international student may or may not be required to use a qualified translator to do the certified translations.

In Australia, for example, all translations need to be done by an accredited NAATI translator who has the certificate to prove it. However, in the United States, it is not necessary to get translations done by an accredited translator. All the translator has to do is write a statement for each student documents translation to say the translation is accurate and then sign it. This statement is attached to the specific translation.

International students may also use their certified translations of degrees and other qualifications when submitting applications for employment in the U.S. Some recruiters and human resource managers could ask you for these translated documents in order to confirm that you are both certified and experienced to take up the position you have applied for.

Who Should do International Students Translations?

A student needs the best translator that money can buy so that means using someone who can prove their competence in both the source and target languages. There are many translation services available who offer online human translators who are not only competent translators but can get the job done quickly without the accuracy suffering. Many have certificates to prove their ability to translate. Some have degrees and postgraduate qualifications in their second language. They use their vast experience of translating international students’ documents to get the perfect translation.

If you are unsure whether you have chosen the right translator you can ask to see testimonials that prove the person’s competence. The chosen translator needs experience with translating legal documents such as marriage and birth certificates as well as academic documents like degree and diploma certificates. Speed is important too as you do not want your application to study or your visa application rejected because you are too late. There is always someone ready to take your place.

The Benefits of Learning Italian

How to Learn Italian Fast

Many Italian language experts suggest immersion as the quickest way to fluency and how to learn Italian quickly. The best way to do this is to move to Italy and set yourself up with a host family so you can interact with them in Italian as you will have no other common language. Immersion is the best choice if you can interact in Italian day in and day out. Other options for the easiest way to learn Italian:

  • listen to Italian opera or Italian popular music while in the car;
  • watch Italian movies when at home;
  • sign up for an integrated audio/text online program for at least 10 minutes a day so you can learn the Italian language online;
  • listen carefully when you hear the Italian language being spoken in public;
  • stream Italian tv online to get Italian language basics.

Use all the resources available to learn Italian fast such as audio courses, CD-ROM programs, grammar books, study Italian online, flash cards, traditional college courses and speak to native Italian-speakers as often as possible. If no one in your city or town speaks Italian, it is possible to source an Italian language partner online. You can then communicate by video calling or instant messaging.

One of the well-worn routes to learning Italian is to try and speak the Italian you know so you get to practise it and correct your mistakes as you go along. Making mistakes is not a reason to give up but as long as you are relaxed you will soon get it right. Whatever route you use for the fastest way to learn Italian constant exposure and regular speaking practice puts you on the way to better fluency. You will be proud of your achievements in no time at all.

Job Opportunities for Italian Bilinguals

Here is a List of Potential Jobs for an Italian Bilingual Speaker
  • Italian interpreter;
  • work from home bilingual Italian /English video/ Phone Interpreter. The Italian video/ telephone interpreter takes responsibility for handling phone calls on demand;
  • bilingual (Spanish/Italian) designer for outerwear. Has to be fluent in either Italian or Spanish and has to be able to travel to other countries as required;
  • global language teacher – Spanish/Italian;
  • work-from-home Italian bilingual with English as a customer representative;
  • Expert freelance translator;
  • LAX Airline check-in, customer service agents (Bilingual Italian/English);
  • Spanish / Italian Teacher;
  • bilingual Italian/ English Customer Service Associate;
  • freelance translator/interpreter Italian/Spanish/English.

Benefits of learning Italian

The Italian language in U.S. colleges is the 4th most studied language. There are a number of reasons for this trend to learn Italian as a beginner which include:

  • It is a beautiful language and has a beautiful rhythm and flows quite naturally.
  • Italy is packed with world heritage sites.
  • Italian is the language of music like adagio, cappella, piano, dolce, forte, allegro and Veloce.
  • It is the sought after language for opera singers.
  • It is packed with familiar food words.
  • At least 6% of Americans claim to possess Italian blood.
  • Italian is the closest language to Latin and Latin is the common ancestor of all of the romance languages.
  • Increased career opportunities as Made in Italy is the most sought after brand.
  • It is the language of romance and love.
  • Italy is a favourite tourist destination.

Language learners in general experience a personality shift when they learn a new language like Italian. As you become more competent in the language there is more of a tendency to take on the personality traits of the native speaker of that language. If the language attracts a more outgoing personality then as you learn the language you could become more outgoing yourself. Italian tends to involve more use of hand gestures than some other languages so this tendency can spread to the new Italian language speaker.

It has been the downfall of some new Italian speakers as they have become known for breaking expensive items in a house as they gesticulate wildly with their arms without thinking about what could be in the way. In many ways, this is beneficial as it shows the new Italian speaker knows how to fit into the context of the new language. This is often key to a foreigner’s acceptance in another country with another language.

How to Get Cheap and Fast Spanish Translations

Today, with the use of the internet, it is far easier to get a fast Spanish translation at low rates than at any time in history. Speed is everything in the world today and that applies to Spanish translations as much as anything else.

Who needs a fast, cheap Spanish translation?

There are many reasons why you may need a cheap Spanish translation quickly. Some of which are:
you are applying for a job in an English speaking country and you need to translate your references quickly from Spanish to English;
you are going to work in a Spanish speaking country and you need a Spanish translation for your birth certificate, police clearance document, job offer and qualifications and any other documents asked for by the immigration authorities.
businesses may also require urgent Spanish translations when launching a campaign in a Spanish speaking country for a new product.

It is easy to find a cheap Spanish translation

Throughout the world there are more than 437 million speakers of Spanish. This means there is a vast pool of Spanish translators available to translate documents quickly and at cheap rates. Depending on how fast you want your translations completed you should get a quote from a number of translators first. Sometimes translators ask for more if you want a 24 hour turnaround but because there are many Spanish translators who offer cheap Spanish translations it will not take long to find one who fits your budget and can provide a fast turnaround too.
The first thing to do is look for a translation agency that has an excellent reputation and a sound client base. These sorts of agencies will be upfront and honest and will provide you with their cheap Spanish translation rates in advance so you know what to expect when you get the bill. It is only these sorts of translation agencies that can be trusted to choose the right translator for your industry or organisation who is skilled in providing fast but accurate translations.

Translation techniques for cheap Spanish translations

Most professional translators who provide cheap Spanish translations do not take short cuts because of the cost. They use a variety of translation techniques depending on the type of translation. Basically though there are two main techniques used and the one the translator chooses will depend on what other language the Spanish is to be paired with. Some Spanish language pairs are more suited to direct translations while other pairs are better suited to indirect translation techniques.
Most professional Spanish translators specialise in a specific language pair. There are of course a few who consider themselves to be multilingual and may be competent enough to do Spanish translations into more than one language. If you are looking for Spanish translation at low rates and you need to translate your Spanish documents into two languages you may be lucky to find a Spanish translator who is able to do this. There is a good chance that a successful Spanish translator will have a good understanding of the cultures of the languages he or she translates too as this is so important when an accurate translation is required.

Two main translation techniques

Your translator may use a literal translation or direct translation when Spanish is being translated into a second language which has the same grammar and syntax. This is the method used by free online translation tools but it has been found that it is not always accurate. This would not work well enough for Spanish to English translations. Indirect translations methods tend to be favoured by Spanish translators who offer Spanish translations at low rates. It looks into more depth in order to find just the right words for a Spanish translation so that no one could tell it was a translation.

When direct translations are performed by online tools like Google Translate you can expect to see wrong word usages which make the translation clumsy to read. Most importantly anyone reading a direct translation will know it is a translation because these translations are rarely perfect. This would certainly not be appropriate for any types of legal documents where accuracy is so important. Overall, because human translators are still the best translators, indirect translations are more commonly used, even if you want Spanish translations at low rates.

The History and Future of Translations

Translations throughout the centuries have made vital communication aids and have permeated all parts of societies. One of the commonest early translations was of the Bible so that Christians could spread the beliefs and ideas throughout the world. As translators themselves were not commonplace in earlier times, those that were able to translate books like the Bible are still remembered today for their work. This is because of the huge impact sharing information and ideas through language had in those days, which have continued up to this day. They have had a significant influence on the way people think about politics, religion, education and many other fields.

As the world slipped into the 21st century, translators were seen but not heard and concentrated on translating a huge variety of information that needed to be shared. That included works of literature, speeches, key business and organisation documents, contract documents, clinical trial documents, important inventions and discoveries, court cases, presentations. Today the world wouldn’t be able to do without translators. They are the key to global communications in all areas of life and allow businesses to effectively market their products overseas. The history of translations in short can’t be explained, let’s know about the various stages through which translations have

The 8 Stages Through Which Translations Have Gone Through the Time

Stage 1:- The Bible

The very first translation of the Bible from Hebrew to Greek took place in 3BC. It involved 70 translators and this first translation was named the Septuagint. It took 72 days for the full translation to be completed. This translation was used as a base for translations into Armenian, Georgian, Latin and Coptic. One of the suggestions mooted by early translators was not to conduct word to word translations, but the translation should be adapted to suit the theme of the text so that it sounded natural.

Stage 2:- The 4th Century

4 BC brought a Buddhist monk, translator and scholar to fame called Kumārajīva. He concentrated on translating numerous Buddhist texts from Sanskrit to Chinese. A key Buddhist text called ‘Diamond Sutra’ became one of his most important translations.

Stage 3:- The Medieval Age

9BC saw the translation from Latin to English of Boethius’s “The Consolation of Philosophy and Bede’s Ecclesiastical History.” These translations helped in the advancement of English prose during King Alfred the Great time. 12BC and 13BC saw the establishment of the foundations of the modern Spanish language, aided by translators from the Escuela de Traductores de Toledo, or the Toledo School of Translators. A few came from various areas of Europe to translate important scientific, medical, philosophical and religious works into both Castilian and Latin from Greek, Hebrew and Arabic. In the same century the 13th Roger Bacon, a linguist in the English language remarked that a translator should be completely knowledgeable in both the source and targeted languages in order to produce a really accurate translation. They should also be an expert in the subject they are translating.
In the 14th century, John Wycliffe unveiled the 1st first Bible translation from Latin to English while Geoffrey Chaucer translated the Boethius’ works from Latin to English and also, ‘Roman de la Rose’ into English. Wycliffe did a lot of translations of Italian authors’ works into English.

Stage 4:- Later Medieval to the Early Renaissance

Gemistus Pletho hailing from Constantinople went to Florence to reintroduce Plato’s philosophy. He opened The Platonic Academy headed by Italian scholar and translator Marsilio Ficino. This academy translated all of Plato’s works and those of Plotinus’ ‘Enneads’ into Latin. In the 15th century the works of Thomas Mallory of ‘Le Morte d’Arthur,’ which included King Arthur’s tales and the Knights of the Round Table, Lancelot, Merlin and Guinevere were translated.

Stage 5:- The West Rises

The 16th century saw the middle class grow while printing became more prevalent. There was an increase in demand for more translations of literary works. Also, Englishman William Tyndale led the New Testament’s first translation in 1525. It was for the first time translated directly from Hebrew and Greek into English. After the New Testament translation was completed, Tyndale translated 50 per cent of the Old Testament but because he had an English version of it in the absence of a license he was handed out the death penalty so one of his assistants completed the translation of the Old Testament. Later mass productions of these translations took place.

Stage 6:- The Industrial Revolution

By this time, the accuracy and style of the translated text were both important features of a translation. At this time also footnotes explained that the text was not original but was a translation. In 1898 Chinese scholar and translator Yan Fu unveiled a translation theory based on the extensive experience he had had of English to Chinese translations of documents related to the social sciences. The theories were all about faithfulness, which meant getting close to the source material, expressiveness and elegance. Yan Fu decided that expressiveness was the most important as it permitted the delivery of the meaning of the content to its targeted audience.

Stage 7:- Today

Translation Studies has become an academic course which studies philosophy, terminology, semiotics, linguistics, philology, computer science, history and comparative literature.

Stage 8:- The Future

The future for translators looks optimistic, as the expected value in 2020 will be US$56.18 billion. The move towards machine translation is not expected to dent too much the demand for human translators unless the machine translators can learn to read between the lines. Further development in higher order machine translations is not likely to put much of a dent in the human translator market at least this is not predicted to happen in the short term.