The Dari Language, its History & Facts

Dari is a political term that is used for the variety of dialects of the Persian language that are spoken in Afghanistan. Dari was officially promoted and has been recognized by the government of Afghanistan since 1964 as the country’s Persian language.

Pashto and Dari are Afghanistan’s official languages. Dari belongs to the northwestern Iranian language sub-family. It is related closely to languages like Baluchi, Kurdish, and Gilaki. Dari, and not Pashto, is the lingua franca representing Afghanistan’s many language groups. About 33 percent of Afghanistan’s population, around 5 million, speak Dari. The language is also spoken by 2.5 million people in Pakistan and Iran and in neighboring regions.

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Is Korean Easy to Learn and What Benefit is There of Learning the Language?

The Korean language has something of an undeserved reputation of being a difficult language to learn. It’s hard to find any school for example anywhere outside of East Asia which has a Korean language option. And yet, Korean is nowhere near as difficult as might be thought and there are many advantages to learning this unique language. These unique attributes and benefits of learning Korean are explored briefly below.

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10 Interesting Facts About the Russian Language

Russian may not now have quite the same status it once had when the Cold War was central to world geopolitics but the Russian language remains one of the world’s most important languages for many reasons as outlined below in these interesting facts about the Russian language.

10 fun facts about the Russian language

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Do You Need a Journeyman License and Certification?

What is a Journeyman?

A Journeyman is a skilled tradesperson who is able to work in many different environments. A journeyman has extensive experience in a trade which helps him or her to gain career advancement and grow transferrable skills. Examples of a journeyman are electricians, pipefitters, welders, painters, and roofers. They complete an apprenticeship in a trade, get a certification and license, and can perform work independently on a job site. Licensed journeymen, sit an exam which is based on knowledge about their trade.

Types of journeymen

An electrician journeyman

Journeymen electricians are tradespeople who have completed an internship and are now certified, electricians. They normally report to a master who’s in their trade. They are permitted to work independently when at a job site and they are qualified to work in commercial, residential, and government facilities. Their duties can include working collaboratively with any other journeymen so that projects can be completed. This includes inspecting and installing electrical wiring and fixing electrical system problems.

A plumber journeyman

This is a professional plumber who has finished an apprenticeship in the plumbing trade. He or she may work independently or as a team member with a team of other plumber journeymen when completing plumbing projects. They are professionals who have earned licenses and certifications while taking part in an apprenticeship program. They can train apprentices who wish to learn plumbing skills and techniques. A journeyman plumber is permitted to work in both commercial and residential facilities. They unclog drains, replace pipes and install plumbing equipment while also mending broken pipes.

A pipefitter journeyman

This is a tradesperson who is able to build and repair piping that contains high-pressure components. The duties normally include installing pipes, maintaining pipes, handling pipe systems, and assembling complicated piping materials. A pipefitter journeyman can be employed by a pipefitting company, or they could work for a large company that employs several types of trades, such as construction companies and utility companies.

A welder journeyman

A welder journeyman uses equipment that is specialized to fuse metals by use of extreme heat. They operate welding equipment, follow safety regulations, and read blueprints. A welder journeyman will have finished a welding apprenticeship so will have the licensing required to undertake a job in a welding workshop or weld on a worksite.

A roofer journeyman

These are specialized tradespeople who build and repair the roofs of buildings and other structures. They inspect roofs to determine what sort of repairs are required, work with blueprints and roof sketches, provide customers with cost estimates and gather the materials required for repairing and building.

A painter journeyman

A painter journeyman’s job is to prepare and paint both interior and exterior surfaces. They can work in both commercial and residential settings. The duties may include covering surfaces nearby so as to protect any damage that could be caused by paint such as when mixing paint. They apply primer to a surface to get it ready to paint, consult with clients to determine how the surfaces are to be painted, and collaborate with other journeymen painters for the bigger jobs.

An HVAC journeyman

This is a journeyman who works as a tradesperson who maintains and installs ventilation systems, heating units, and air conditioning. An HVAC journeyman typically consults with the customer to offer a heating and cooling option. They identify issues in an HVAC system and perform any necessary repairs. They also clean cooling and heating units, diagnose any risks linked to HVAC systems and use specialized HVAC equipment and tools.

Journeyman skills

Journeyman skills usually employers rank journeymen as experts in their trade. They possess more skills and use certain techniques and equipment in their trade. When working with clients they use strong soft skills. For example, a journeyman may have better communication skills because they have a lot of experience working in a team to complete projects. Technical skills are required so that journeymen know how to handle equipment effectively and safely.

Christmas Around the World

Here are some interesting Christmas traditions from around the world.

Christmas in Australia

In Australia, the summer is the season when Christmas is celebrated so in most parts it is humid and hot. This is due to the earth’s tilt as Australia is in the southern hemisphere. In Australia, Christmas is a public holiday and it is the one time in the year in which Australians share with family and friends where they come together to exchange presents and enjoy great food and drink. One of Aussies’ favorite foods for this time of the year is cooked prawns which are harvested just for this occasion.

Street parties are also very popular (pre-Covid at any rate!). At times in the evening on Christmas Day, you might have seen impromptu street parties taking place and the streets are packed with families and kids. Because it’s summer you are more likely to spot a board short-wearing Santa out surfing on a surfboard than one under a Christmas tree covered in snow!

Cricket is on the sports agenda too, so cricket fanatics often organize their Boxing Day activities around watching this favorite Aussie sport. Once the family gatherings are over, people usually catch up at friends’ houses to watch the Boxing Day Cricket Test. This typically involves a group drinking beer with eyes glued on the cricket on TV while another group of people drink beer and don’t bother to watch the cricket.

Boxing Day also sees the start of the Sydney to Hobart yacht race so sailing fanatics are glued to the TV watching traumas unfold on the notorious Bass Strait.

Christmas in Germany

The Christmas tree is important at Christmas time in Germany. Its use dates back to the late Middle Ages. If young children are in the home, the tree is normally secretly decorated by the children’s mother and is brought into the home on Christmas Eve. In some of the more religious parts of Germany, Christmas songs are sung, like Silent Night. In German these songs include “O Tannenbaum,” “Ihr Kinderlein Kommet” and “Stille Nacht.” Christmas Eve is the time set aside when Germans swap presents within their families.

Germany is known for Christmas markets and all different types of Christmas food and decorations are commonly sold at the markets such as glass ornaments.

Christmas in Italy

One of Italy’s Christmas traditions is when many Italian families have a Nativity crib in their homes. This was made popular in 1223 by St. Francis of Assisi. Sometimes you can find the Nativity scene displayed in a pyramid shape which is meters tall and is built in several tiers, decorated with colored paper, golden-colored pinecones, and tiny candles. The shelves on top of the scene may also contain candy, fruit, and presents.

Italians do not eat any meat on La Vigilia (Christmas Eve). Instead, they tend to eat various fish dishes, even up to 7 courses at one meal. This is a typical activity that takes place on any day & night before a religious celebration. Italians ‘eat lean’ to purify their bodies before the holidays begin. In Rome, Pezzetti, a local dish made from fried zucchini, artichoke, and broccoli is consumed, while in Naples, broccoli and seafood are sautéed.

Along with eating fish, Italians on Christmas Eve eat pasta dishes. There are different types of pasta dishes. For example, in the northern Piedmont and Lombardy, residents will eat lasagna stuffed with anchovies, whereas in Naples vermicelli with clams and mussels are more likely to be served.

Christmas in Russia

As also happens in Poland, people cover their tables and floors with hay which represents baby Jesus’s manager. A white colored tablecloth is laid which represents the clothes Jesus wore as a baby.
One of Russia’s Christmas traditions is celebrating the day on January 7th. The date isn’t the same as other countries because the old Julian calendar is used by the Russian Orthodox Church for its religious occasions. Some Russians fast on Christmas Eve until the 1st star can be seen in the sky. This is the time for eating ‘sochivo’ or ‘kutia’ which is a porridge made from rice or wheat and is served with poppy seeds, honey, fruit, chopped-up walnuts, and even fruit jelly.

Christmas in Japan

Christmas celebrations in Japan only began a few decades ago. It is not a religious holiday as not many Christians live in Japan. Today there are some customs that arrived in Japan from the United States like the sending of Christmas cards and presents. Christmas Eve is considered to be a romantic day when couples spend some time together and swap presents. Younger couples like to walk together to observe Christmas lights outside and enjoy visiting a restaurant for a romantic meal.

Eating fried chicken on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day is now a popular pastime so restaurants like KFC have to be booked early.

Our translation service is now part of the ZircoDATA family!

ZircoDATA Pty Ltd, a leader in records and information management from governance through to storage, digitisation and destruction, has acquired our mother entity Xine Communication, one of the largest translation service providers in Australia. This acquisition extends ZircoDATA’s portfolio in conversion services in complementary sectors including financial, government, legal, medical and professional services.

Jacqueline Fitzpatrick, ZircoDATA CEO, will oversee the transition of the Xine business into ZircoDATA, giving ZircoDATA an expanded footprint in the data digitisation arena.

“The combination of Xine Communication with our expertise in records lifecycle management will provide customers of both organisations with a single supplier from translation to records management. This provides significant commercial efficiencies for both organisations’ customers” says Jacqueline Fitzpatrick, ZircoDATA CEO. “The acquisition also provides efficiencies operationally for both organisations and allows ZircoDATA to leverage its solid operational and commercial expertise”.

“We are excited to extend our portfolio to deliver translation, interpretation and glossary development services. As a trusted provider of document and information management for over 25 years, adding translation to our conversion services is a natural fit. It is also a fantastic opportunity for both ZircoDATA and Xine Communication customers to experience the complementary nature of the services we provide, delivering greater efficiencies and improvements to their management processes”, says Fitzpatrick.

“We are extremely proud of all we have achieved at Xine Communication since we began over 12 years ago and look forward to being a part of the new expanded ZircoDATA family as it continues to evolve” said Xine Communication CEO, Chris Dammann.


How To Say ‘Happy Halloween’ In 70 Languages

What we do on Halloween

Almost half the world celebrates Halloween and it is quite a special holiday and is considered to be one of the most popular throughout the world. The date it is celebrated is the last day of October. What most people who celebrate Halloween do is dress themselves up in scary clothing so that they appear as frightening as possible.

On October 31st participants in Halloween dress themselves up as witches, ghosts, and monsters as long as they look scary. The festival originates from All Hallows’ Eve or All Saints’ Eve, which throughout the centuries has evolved from a pagan ritual through to the ancient Celtic holiday called Samhain and now it is the favorite holiday for today’s children and adults as well.

Children use the term ‘Trick-or-Treat;

When the children have finished dressing up in different costumes they go in a group of friends from door to door in their neighborhood and ask their neighbors for candies followed by the phrase Trick or Treat. If they don’t get what they want they will perform a mischievous trick.

The most popular Halloween tradition

Pumpkins have been an important symbol at Halloween from the Celt days when people carved faces into vegetables which were mainly pumpkins. This was to light away for good spirits. Since those early days, scary faces have been carved onto pumpkins and they are placed in our porches, in order to frighten off bad spirits. Because Halloween is so popular around the world 70 languages have a phrase that means
Happy Halloween.

Happy Halloween in 70 Different Languages

Language How to Say Happy Halloween
Zulu I-Halloween enhle
Yoruba Dun Halloween
Urdu مبارک ہیلوین
Ukranian щасливого Хеловіну
Turkish Cadılar Bayramınız Kutlu Olsun
Tswana Itumetse Halloween
Tibetan สุขสันต์ฮาโลวีน
Thai สุขสันต์วันฮาโลวีน
Telugu (Hyāpī hālōvīn)
Tamil (Halōvīṉ vāḻttukaḷ
Tagalog Masayang Halloween
Swedish Lycklig Alla Helgons Dag
Swahili Halloween Yenye Heri
Spanish Feliz Día de las Brujas
Sinhala සතුටු හැලොවීන්
Serbian Срећна ноћ вештица
Russian Поздравляем Вас с праздником Хэллоуин
Romanian Halloween fericit
Punjabi ਹੈਲੋਵੀਨ ਮੁਬਾਰਕ (Khuśī hailōvīna)
Portuguese Feliz Dia das Bruxas
Polish Szczęśliwego Halloween
Persian هالووین مبارک
Pashto خوشحاله هالویین
Norwegian Lykkelig Allehelgens Dag
Mongolian Сүнсний баярын мэнд хүргэе
Maori Hari Halloween
Malayalam (hāleāvīn āśansakaḷ)
Malay Selamat Hari Halloween
Lithuanian Laimingas Helovinas
Latin Felicem Vesperam Sanctam
Lao ສຸກ​ສັນ​ວັນ​ຮາ​ໂລ​ວີນ( suk san van ha ol vin)
Kurdish Salona dilxweş
Korean 해피 할로윈 (Heang / Bok / Han Hal / Lo / Wein)
Kannada (Hyāpi hyālōvīn)
Japanese ハッピーハロウィン
Italian Buon Halloween
Indonesian Selamat Halloween
Igbo Obi ụtọ Halloween
Hungarian Boldog Mindszentet
Hindi heloveen kee shubhakaamana
Hebrew ליל כל הקדושים שמח
Hausa Farin ciki Halloween
Gujarati હેપી હેલોવીન (Hēpī hēlōvīna)
Greek Καλό Χαλοουίν
German Fröhliches Halloween
Georgian ბედნიერი ჰელოვინი (bednieri helovini)
French Joyeux Halloween
Finish Hyvää Halloweenia
Filipino Masayang Halloween
Esperanto Feliĉa Halloween
English Happy Halloween
Egyptian Arabic سعيدعيد هالوين
Dutch Gelukkig Halloween
Danish Glædelig Halloween
Czech Veselý Halloween
Croatian Sretan Halloween
Chinese 万圣节快乐
Catalan Feliç Halloween
Cantonese Malipayon nga Halloween
Burmese Main g lar haallo
Bulgarian Честит Хелоуин
Bengali (Śubha hyālō’ina)
Belarus шчаслівы Хэлоўін
Azerbaijani Halloween bayraminiz mübarak
Armenian ուրախ Հելոուին (urakh Heluin)
Arabic هالوين سعيد
Amharic መልካም የሃሎዊን (melikami yehalowīni)
Albanian Gezuar Hallouinin
Afrikaans Gelukkige Halloween
:asohX Usuku olumnandi le-Halloween

So, when the 31st of October comes around, do something special at home like watching a scary movie, decorate your home with carved-out pumpkins. And you must not forget to buy some candies for ghosts, little monsters, zombies and witches because they may trick you if you decide not to provide them with some special treats.

What are Programming Languages?

A programming language is used by a person for interacting with computers. Instructions are given to devices using this language which is followed by an expected output. Coding is the term used by a programmer to give instructions to a computer. If programming languages did not exist then there would be no software.

Most popular programming languages

Java is a popular programming language followed by Python, both of which are simple and straightforward. Many experts believe that it is quite an easy language to learn and understand. Instagram and Pinterest were both built using Python. Other well-known names in the world of programming are PHP, JavaScript, and C#.

Can programming languages be translated or interpreted?

English is known as the most popular of the world’s languages. It can be seen in use just about everywhere, including advertisements, in entertainment, in literature, and in the naming of clothing brands. Even many programming languages are based on English. This is the reason why developers add English words when coding. Because of this, even those who are non-English speakers need to learn some of the English languages so they can code.

Because translation is helpful in so many fields, people often wonder if they can depend on it to help them in the understanding of the software. But the languages used when developing software are not quite the same as native languages so it is not possible to compare them with Spanish or English, for example.

A program that has been published in one language could be translated into a different programming language. A language’s source code may be converted to a code in another language. It isn’t possible at the moment to interpret a programming language. Humans are unable to interpret a programming language for a machine to use. However, they can troubleshoot, debug, and tweak codes if required.

Put quite simply, programming languages can’t be either translated or interpreted in the same way one native language can be translated into another as they are not the same as natural tongues. For a start, they do not use a writing system with nouns and prepositions. They do not have any sort of sentence structure like native languages. Also, if the English component is changed into another language, the coding will not work so it isn’t possible to interpret or translate a programming language.

What is a translation of coding?

There is one type of translation that computer experts can carry out, called porting. This is when a software code is changed from one programming language to another. By doing this, developers modify a program so that it can run on a different computing system. If you have used an iOS app on your Android this is due to porting. It is this process that has made it possible for users to access their preferred software without it being necessary to change their mobile so that a specific app can be used.

Who translates programming languages?

There are a few tools that can do porting but they are unable to convert an iOS application so it can be used by an Android device. Only a human brain can do complicated tasks such as the translation of programming languages using porting.


Even though many people use computers few really understand the way a computer works. Only computer engineers can create software and applications for us to use.




How To Travel Internationally

With Australian vaccination rates growing at a snail’s pace, there’s no set end date yet for international border closures. This means you still need a travel exemption to leave Australia if you’re an Australian citizen or a permanent resident.

Who is allowed to travel?

To be eligible, you must meet at least one of the following criteria:

  • your trip is for your business or employer
  • you need urgent medical treatment that is not available in Australia
  • you are traveling for a compelling reason for three months or longer
  • you are traveling on compassionate grounds

Alternatively, your travel must be in the national interest or part of the response to the COVID-19 outbreak, including the provision of aid. More information is available on the Department of Home Affairs’ travel website.

It’s your evidence that counts!

When applying for a travel exemption, the most important thing to remember is that you must prove you have a compelling reason to travel. The authorities will carefully assess your application based on the evidence you submit – so make sure your paperwork is in order. If your evidence is not in English, you will need a certified translation. Evidence may include:

  • passport/s
  • marriage certificate/s
  • birth certificate/s
  • death certificate/s
  • proof of relationship
  • documents showing that you are moving to another country on a long-term basis (e.g., leases, job offers, or evidence your goods are being transported)
  • proof of your current valid visa
  • a letter from a doctor or a hospital about your medical treatment/condition and why travel is necessary
  • a letter from your employer showing that you are traveling for a business reason
  • statement or evidence to show when you wish to return to Australia

How we can help you

We can assist you with all your travel exemption-related translation needs – in fact, we already translate hundreds of documents related to travel exemptions each month. Our translations are carried out by NAATI-certified translators and are accepted by the Department of Home Affairs – check out some client video reviews here.

  • We have been providing certified translations since 2008
  • We deliver the Department of Home Affairs’ own Free Translating Service
  • Acceptance of the translation is guaranteed – or your money back!
  • Our Google rating is 4.9 stars
  • We operate 24 hours, 7 days a week

Minimize the risk of your application getting rejected.

Get a free translation quote now

Why You Might Find Your Birth Certificate Handy

In most, but not all, countries around the world, every birth is registered and some sort of certificate issued to document the birth. Each country may have different information recorded on the certificate, but the following details tend to be included on most birth certificates:

  • date of birth;
  • address of birthplace;
  • father’s name;
  • mother’s name;
  • name of the child;
  • gender of the child;
  • issuing authority;
  • signature of the person issuing the certificate.

Many birth certificates have features embedded in them which make them harder to alter or forge, although the design of most certificates still belongs to the last century and with modern technology it probably wouldn’t be too difficult to alter a birth certificate for illegal purposes, certainly easier than falsifying a passport or driving license.

Most birth certificates are retained by parents until such time that the child whose birth certificate it is grown up and needs the certificate for their own purposes, commonly to acquire a driving license or passport for the first time.

Many people tend to forget about their birth certificates after that and put them somewhere for safekeeping, although many get lost, usually just before they have been requested by someone! Usually, it is possible to get a replacement birth certificate if needed, although some jurisdictions are more efficient than others.

Why is a birth certificate necessary?

1. Evidence of parentage

The birth certificate gives information about who the parents of the certificate holder were. This isn’t always definitive proof because many authorities that registered the birth of a child, especially in the past, would record details about parents based on what they were told. However, it helps to establish a relationship for inheritance purposes.

2. Driving license

Many countries need to establish identity before issuing a first driving license, as well as a person’s residential and postal address. The birth certificate is usually an initial document shown when the first driving license is applied for as it establishes the date of birth and legal name.

3. Premarital name or evidence of name change

It is common in many, but not all, countries for a woman to take the name of her husband on marriage. Although this practice is tending to become less common, it is still common enough for the birth certificate to be requested whenever a marriage certificate is examined to check the premarital or maiden name. The same applies if someone quite legitimately applies for a name change.

4. Citizenship, ID. and passport applications

As for driving licenses, other identity documents issued for the first time often require examination of the birth certificate to establish citizenship, name, and date of birth.

5. School enrollments

Schools may require the date of birth of a child before he or she is first enrolled in a kindergarten or primary school. In many countries, attendance at school is compulsory for children of certain ages. The birth certificate is the primary method of determining the age of a child for enrollment as there will be no other document available at that age.

6. International travel for work or educational reasons

School, college, and university courses overseas, as well as employers and immigration authorities, usually require a raft of documents to establish the authenticity of a person’s application for a course, job, or visa, including a birth certificate.


If you can’t remember where you put your own birth certificate, make an effort to find it and put it somewhere where you will be able to locate it. It’s not just a quirky relic of your past. A missing birth certificate may put your life on hold just when you didn’t want it to!