$400, 000 Raised For the Bible to be Translated Into 16 Countries’ Sign Languages

Just recently, thousands of Christian students and their leaders attended a Christian conference in the USA which raised $400,000 to help in the translation of the Bible into non-standard sign languages in parts of the world which have had little exposure to Christianity.

The gatherings took place in three U.S. cities which were Dallas, Washington D.C. and Atlanta, that attracted almost 40,000 18 to 25-year-olds. The Passion 2019 conference generally gathers to worship and learn about Christianity. However one of its aims was to raise money to make sure deaf people from other areas of the world can gain access to Christ’s teachings.

It was the Deaf Bible Society that initiated this fundraising and the $448,270 will fund their campaign to distribute as many copies as possible of the Bible in sign languages that are unique to 16 quite different countries.

Countries who will be recipients of the Bible in their sign language dialects include Malaysia, Japan, the Philippines, South Sudan, Thailand, Myanmar, South Africa, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Ghana, Colombia, Egypt, Cuba, Moldova and Mexico. The Deaf Society recently revealed that 70 million people worldwide use sign language as their main way of communicating. Presently the Bible has been translated either fully or partially into many of the world’s languages. The New Testament has been fully translated into 1,521 languages and the whole Bible can be read in 683 languages.

The different sign languages around the world

Overall, there are more than 200 sign languages used throughout the world today. The number changes as new sign languages emerge rapidly due to creolisation. In a few countries, like Sri Lanka, each deaf school may use a separate language, which only its students know and use. JSL is Japan’s sign language and it’s not the same as American Sign Language (ASL). ASL does use mouth movements, but not as much as JSL. Also, finger spelling is used more often in JSL than in ASL.

French Sign Language (LSF) is used by around 100,000 people in France and it’s accepted by educators. It has had an influence on sign languages such as ASL, Russian Sign Language (RSL) and ISL. Charles Michel de l’Épée is often given the credit for inventing LSF, but in fact, all he actually did was to take the sign language already being used by Paris’s deaf community, added some rules which made it far too complicated, and then established a free deaf school where his sign language could be taught.

The American and the British don’t share the same sign language. British Sign Language (BSL) and American Sign Language don’t even share the same language family. Between 250,000 and 500,000 individuals in the U.S. claim that ASL is their own native language. Also, S.E. Asia, Canada and West Africa use ASL. ASL resembles LSF but is also influenced by what’s called Martha’s Vineyard Sign Language, as well as other local sign languages. Like LSF, ASL uses a one-handed finger-spelling alphabet.

Irish Sign Language (ISL)

Irish deaf people speak Irish Sign Language (ISL), which originates from LSF. However, ISL has, to some extent, been influenced by BSL, it is still quite distinct. In 2014, about 5,000 deaf individuals, mostly in the Irish Republic but some in North of Ireland, do use ISL to communicate.

Chinese Sign Language (ZGS or CSL)

Sign language is used by up to 20 million people who are deaf in China. Many today use CSL to communicate. Most Chinese deaf children receive treatment at “hearing rehabilitation centres,” which prefers the oralist approach. More recently, more Chinese deaf schools have opened where CSL is preferred. The sign language is unique and doesn’t parallel sign languages from other countries like ASL.

Brazil’s Sign Language or Libras

There are approximately 3 million deaf users in Brazil and to communicate they use Libras, which gained official language status in 2002. It could be linked to Portuguese or LSF but overall it’s considered to be a unique sign language.

Indo-Pakistan Sign Language

The sign language used in South Asia is Indo-Pakistan Sign Language but has never been given official status and it’s not part of the public school curriculum. But some NGOs often use sign language when teaching on vocational and academic courses. There is a large shortage of Indo-Pakistan Sign Language interpreters, with only two hundred and fifty sign language interpreters who are fully certified in India where there is something like 1.8 million deaf people.

Why Humour is so Difficult to Translate

Defining Humour

A good but simple definition of humour is something that causes others to laugh or feel amused. However, what could make one person laugh may not make another person laugh. This has to be taken into account when translating humour. The difficulty with the definition of humour is its subjectivity. Many authors at some time or other have tried to seek out a proper definition of humour, while many have simply reached the conclusion that no real definition can be found.

Humour is found in everyday communication and it plays various roles. Sometimes a person wants to stand out from others so says something humorous to attract their attention while often it occurs spontaneously relating to an incident that has just taken place. There are professional comedians who make a living out of humour too. Most of the time humour only takes place in a single language but there are times like in international conferences when a speaker cracks a joke and an interpreter has to somehow accurately translate it so its meaning is preserved and not lost in translation.

Humour rarely stands out on its own and is usually linked to the context where it takes place. It’s often related to a specific culture making it particularly difficult for a translator or interpreter to translate into another language. Even though humour is not uncommon in everyday life, it is, in fact, difficult to translate.

Language professor, Raphaelson-West, stated in one of his journal articlesrecently that he considers there are three general joke categories. These are:

  • linguistic jokes,
  • cultural jokes
  • universal jokes.

On the question of linguistic jokes, comedian Dan Antopolski, had an award-winning joke which was “Hedgehogs – why can’t they just share the hedge?” This is fine in English but trying to translate into any other languages is difficult because hog has two meanings. This is a virtually insurmountable challenge for even the most highly skilled and experienced translator. Cultural jokes are said to be easier to translate.

Humour often isn’t learned but is part of a person’s talent and not everyone finds the same things humorous. Translating humour is very much dependent on how the translator understands the humour. Often a translator can’t accurately translate humour and if he or she is given a translation job which involves translating humour but no equivalent language in the target language can be found the translator will just say the text is untranslatable.

Translating Humour From Other Countries

Today, there are lots of English humorous TV series or movies that appear in other countries after they have been translated. Sometimes subtitles are used while at other times dubbing is used. As humour is part of the culture where it originates from sometimes subtitles don’t express the language spoken as humorous. Even if the translator has a huge amount of knowledge of both languages sometimes humour is too sophisticated for the translator to be able to convey just the right meaning in the translation. Humour is so rooted in the culture that it becomes a part of a culture’s way of life. A thorough, in-depth understanding of the source and target languages, is necessary as well as being able to interchange cultures.

Some kinds of humour like wordplay depend heavily on the linguistic features found in the source language. This means the translation is complicated because many languages differ so much in their semantic and grammatical structures. Finding a suitable translation that ensures the joke is understood is extremely difficult because of the vast differences between languages and cultures. Arabic and English have little in common so translating humour may never be realistically accurate.

Two Possible Solutions to Translating Humour

There are two main methods to help to resolve the difficulties with translating humour. The 1st is using a cultural note. This is commonly found in westernized or subtitled Japanese shows. A cultural note explains what it means when Japanese viewers are the only ones likely to understand the joke. The key problem with a cultural note is that it may potentially distract and even confuse a viewer which could result in ruining the impact of the joke. The 2nd potential solution is finding a very clever translator. There are one or two around who are able to put together a precise meaning in a translation so that the joke can be equally understood and found to be funny in two languages.

It takes a skilled interpreter, translator, or localization specialist to be able to absorb and reproduce humour and its cultural references for an audience that likes being amused. Time after time the conclusion is that the complex nature of a bilingual brain could be the key to navigating these complicated, comical waters. What everyone wants is to be able to share humour beyond the boundaries of language and culture.

How Do Babies Learn a Language Well Enough to Speak It?

It often seems galling to those of us adults who are struggling to learn a new language to acknowledge just how easily human babies learn a language well enough to speak it. They don’t go to school to learn how to speak. They don’t read books or use Google. They don’t go to evening classes or have private tutors. How do they do it?

Researchers have known for a long time that human babies are instinctively wired to learn to communicate using the language of those around them as they grow up. That means all babies, everywhere around the world. In fact, babies not only learn to speak easily but their method of learning how to speak and communicate verbally also cannot be replicated when you are older. That’s a pity because it means that when you are an adult, it can be much more of a struggle to learn a new language, partly because of the language that you have grown up with acts as a confusing impediment.

A Baby’s Language Learning Timeline

Much of a baby’s language learning unbelievably occurs before they reach five years old. Of course, there is no exact chronology involved. Every baby is unique and follows an independent trajectory when it comes to learning a language and there are a lot of extrinsic factors that come into play, helping or hindering that process.

Before Birth

A baby’s ability to learn a language is dependent on how its brain is designed and also how it develops after birth, as well as how the baby interacts with its external human environment. Even before birth, it is believed that a fetus is already aware of the human sounds made close to where it basks inside its mother’s womb. There is evidence that fetuses actually tune in to human voices and are able to recognize and prefer the sound of their own mother’s voice.

After birth, the first methods of communication used by the baby until it can start to verbalize involve body language and vocalization in the form of bubbles, babbles, squeals, cries, and screams. Babies are acutely interested in human faces and watch and listen carefully when people around them speak, especially when they speak to them.

The First-Year

In the first year of a baby’s life, the baby starts to make unique vocalizations expressing their feelings of pleasure, fear, hunger, and discomfort. They start to use vowel-like sounds and experiment with combinations of noises as well as listening intently when people around them interact with them. At this stage, babies all around the world appear to share the same characteristics, presaging the learning of the language which the baby first experiences.

As a baby grows, it starts to experiment with single words, then combinations of two words together then short sentences of three or more, none of which may not make much sense, to begin with.

The Second-Year

A crucial stage of a baby’s language development occurs after the first year when it now already recognizes words like ‘mama’ and ‘dada,’ its own name and is experimenting vigorously, and often loudly, with combinations of vowels and consonants that start to sound more like the native language they are hearing all around them.

At this stage, they already understand and recognize other words used, even if they can’t vocalize them themselves. It is recognized that in early baby language learning the comprehensive stage, i.e. the ability to recognize words, comes before the expressive stage when these words are actually used in a meaningful way by the baby itself.

By the baby’s second year, there has been tremendous growth in language learning, although there is considerable variation between individual babies, which is partly due to genetics and partly due to the way they have been brought up and the richness of human interaction they have experienced. At 24 months from birth, most babies will be able to recognize many words representing familiar objects, as well as commands like ‘no,’ ‘up’ and ‘down.’ They will also be able to use at least 50 words themselves, although many of their utterances may be incomprehensible to older people.

The Third-Year

By three years old, most of what the infant is saying makes sense. It will be able to speak in short sentences, enjoy using multi-syllable words, ask short questions, and crucially learn 9 or 10 new words a day. That growth in vocabulary continues during childhood and early adolescence. At the end of this phase of development, the infant will have acquired a vocabulary of around 400 words or more and be able to create sentences of their own rather than just repeat words and word combinations they have heard.

The Fourth-Year

By the end of the fourth year, children will have developed a working vocabulary of around 1,000 words or more, understand most of what they hear, express themselves sufficiently to make their needs and want to be heard, ask simple questions and construct simple sentences. Differences between one child’s speed of language acquisition and another’s are obvious, even within a single family.

The Fifth-Year

By five years old, when in many countries children first go to primary school, they have acquired a working vocabulary of 2,500 words or more, can use verbs correctly, understand and use past and future tenses, understand and use prepositions, are able to carry on a conversation and ask innumerable questions.

Conclusion

Babies are instinctively designed by nature to learn the language that they are exposed to from before birth. They do so in a way that is quite different from the way that older people learn a new language. The way that babies learn a language seems to be universal but can be influenced by the human environment in which they grow up in. This can help to speed up or slow down their natural language acquisition.

By the age of 5, little humans, for all practical purposes, have learned all the basic components of their native language.

Some Tips to Make Language Learning Easy

If you are an English language speaker and really want to learn another language, it can be frustrating hearing all those Europeans and others who seem to be able to speak English, and often one or more other languages, so fluently, when you stumble over the simplest conversations.

We have probably all had the experience of trying out our newly learned new language expressions on a native speaker and finding they switch to our language because it is so much easier to communicate.

But if they can do it, so surely we can, too! In fact, the fact that as children we pick up language learning without any formal training should indicate that just about every human being has the innate ability to learn a language.

Can children teach us anything about learning a new language?

The fact that children learn languages easily doesn’t always help us, as they have unique advantages over older learners. For a start, they don’t have any other language they know (apart from body language) to confuse them. One of the problems that can be frustrating when an adult learns another language is that the syntax of their native language is often so different from the new language that it confuses them.

The incentive is a key Ingredient in Learning another Language

The key ingredient in learning another language is an incentive. Children have a huge incentive to learn the language of meaningful people around them. So do those whose native language is spoken by hardly anyone! Scandinavians and the Dutch, for example, learn English very quickly; otherwise, like children, they would be unintelligible to anyone else other than their own countrymen.

We can turn that around to help us learn another language more easily. Immersion in the language we want to learn is one of the best methods. Immersion can take many forms:

Make friends with those who speak another language. Even if you only mix some of the words and phrases you know, making conversation with friends whose native language is the one you want to learn can be a game changer. Of course, they may try and make it easier to communicate by talking only in your language, but if you make it known that you are trying to make an effort to learn their language, then you should get along just fine.

Read books, papers, websites, and magazines and watch the news or films that don’t have subtitles in the language you want to learn. If you do this with things you enjoy then you will find you are picking up useful vocabulary and even grammar more easily. For example, if you like sport, make an effort to read, watch and listen to the sport in the language of your choice.

Visit the Country where the Language is Spoken

This is the most expensive way to learn another language, but potentially the most fun and the most productive. Now, here is a word of warning. If the main purpose of your visit is to learn a language and not just go on holiday, then you are best going alone. If you visit another country with someone else you inevitably spend much more time talking in your own language and not in the language of the country you are visiting.

Another way of maximizing your learning experience is to find a way of ensuring you are forced to communicate in the language of the country you are visiting. An easy way to do that is to volunteer with a group or organization of your choice. This way, you will find that you are made welcome and you will certainly have an incentive (remember the key ingredient!) to learn as fast as possible.

Conclusion

Some people have a natural advantage over others when learning a new language. The younger you are, the quicker you will learn any language. The more incentive you have to learn another language, the faster you will pick it up. The key to learning another language then without reverting to becoming a child all over again (!) is to find an incentive that suits you and your pocket. Reading, watching and listening to foreign language media can be useful. Making friends and visiting other countries, preferably on your own and integrating with those that are there, are all tried and true methods of making language learning easy.

German Immigrants in Australia & their Influence on it’s Culture

It might seem strange to think that there is a noticeable German influence in Australia, but in fact, there has been a significant German presence in the island continent since the early days of European colonization in the nineteenth century.

Waves of German immigration into Australia have paralleled historical events in the German-speaking parts of Europe. German immigrants to Australia have brought with them their language and many aspects of their culture, which over the years has become modified and merged into the broader Australian way of life.

Why did Germans Come to Australia?

The largest German waves of immigration into Australia took place in the middle to the late nineteenth century and again before the middle of the twentieth. Many came because of religious persecution at home or because of a thirst for exploration or a desire for economic improvement. Many of the first Germans in Australia settled in Melbourne and then expanded across Victoria and into South Australia, where they still remain as a significant cultural and linguistic presence in the Barossa Valley.

Before and after the Second World War German Jews fled their homeland, as they did to many other parts of the world, escaping persecution. Migration from Germany to Australia of course stopped during the first and second world wars, and many Australians of German origin were interned during the Second World War, but as soon as the war ended a new wave of migrants arrived, the numbers gradually dropping as Germany itself recovered and developed into an economic powerhouse of its own.

German Culture in Australia

Australians of original German ancestry still possess a unique culture that is partly of German origin and partly Australian, albeit much reduced compared to the past. Barossa-German was a dialect spoken by Barossa migrants and had its origin in the Brandenburg district of Prussia from where many of the migrants had emigrated from. This particular dialect is rarely heard today in South Australia. A few words may have become part of the Australian lexicon like the word “butcher,” which is a small 200ml glass of beer in an Aussie pub, probably a corruption of the Prussian word “Becher.”

Many German recipes and food specialties made the passage down under with the migrants and their enjoyment has continued through to today. Blutwurst, Leberwurst, Mettwurst, and Weißwurst are all well known as well as sauerkraut and Streuselkuchen.

German Visitors to Australia Today

Today, modern Germany has become an important economic partner of Australia and there are many German businesses that have a significant presence in the country. Over 100,000 Australian students are learning German as a language and a new wave of visitors are on the move in both directions. Young and older Australians regularly visit Germany as part of a wider visit to Europe, some of them staying and making Germany their home. At the same time, thousands of German tourists travel to Australia every year, over 200,000 alone from Germany last year!

Germans are great travelers, partly because the German economy at home is relatively strong and even young Germans have sufficient cash to make long trips away from home as tertiary education is subsidized or provided free by the German government, freeing graduates from the worry of paying back a loan. Many younger Germans stay in Australia on working holiday visas; others come to Australia to study and still, others are just making a short trip to Australia to visit friends, relatives or as tourists.

Conclusion

Germany is an important trading partner with Australia and many Germans these days earmark Australia as a destination for work, study, and travel as well as do business. It is a continuation of a long but not well-known tradition of German Australian connections that has endured since German migrants first made their way down under in the early phases of European colonization. There is a strong Australian German connection in several parts of Southern Australia, especially Victoria and South Australia. The best known German contribution to Australian culture is the wine growing region of the Barossa Valley where German traditions are still kept alive today, especially food and drink.

What is a Certified Healthcare Interpreter and Why Is It Required For Hospitals?

Hospital interpreters have increased in numbers over the years due to more and more people ending up in countries who are not completely fluent in the host country’s language. The main aim of a healthcare interpreter is to provide an interpretation service in his or her pair of languages to those who need to access medical services but their competence in English, for example, is not good enough to understand in order to be able to competently provide the medical services that are required.

The medical professionals that a patient may need to communicate with effectively include:

  • doctors,
  • nurses,
  • other hospital staff.

Who provides a healthcare interpreter is decided by the medical facility that needs them. Increasingly local and federal governments are providing funding for a healthcare interpreter to be made available as required. They don’t always have to be physically present in the hospital, as sometimes video conferencing can be set up to provide the interpretation. Phone calls can be used as well.

Proficiency of a Healthcare Interpreter

It’s typically quite normal for a hospital interpreter to be fluent in two languages. In some cases, a healthcare interpreter may have studied healthcare terminology in both languages so they can deliver the best job possible for patients who have limited competency in English. It’s possible to become a certified healthcare interpreter by following a medical interpreter programme. This gives the healthcare interpreter the responsibility of being able to certify their healthcare interpretations. This is sometimes required when the medical document being interpreted and explained to the patient is an informed consent form. This needs to be accurate otherwise it may provide wrong information to the patient that could cause unnecessary stress.

When a healthcare interpreter attends a medical interpreter programme s/he will be taught that it’s important to be aware of the cultural differences that exist between people. They will also be taught how important it is to keep all information about the patients they interpret for confidential. Most hospitals publish their policies on patient confidentiality.

Qualities of a Healthcare Interpreter

A healthcare interpreter needs to be all of the following:

  • punctual,
  • communicative,
  • reliable,
  • sensitive to the multicultural environment.

The healthcare interpreter who focuses on maintaining good interpersonal relationships is likely to be successful and will excel as a healthcare interpreter. Apart from these skills he or she needs to have a high level of understanding and be able to understand complex information that is used in the medical setting. This also includes conforming to any written guidelines and hospital policies with regard to the healthcare setting.

Medical Interpreter Programme

Interpreters possess a high level of skills ranging and are often qualified up to degree level. There are some schools that offer medical interpreter certificate programmes. These programmes can be studied either at a college campus or online whatever is preferred.

What is a Certified Healthcare Interpreter Programme?

There are a few states in the U.S. which require a healthcare interpreter to be certified. In order to become certified, there are a number of certification programs available if a healthcare interpreter has completed no less than 40 hours of training to become a healthcare interpreter. To become certified it’s necessary to pass the oral component of the certification process. In the U.S., the National Board for Certification of Medical Interpreters offers a credential called Certified Medical Interpreter. To qualify for this, each healthcare interpreter needs to have successfully undertaken and completed a medical interpreter program, have passed an examination prove proficiency in no less than two languages.

Gain Experience to Enhance your Career as a Healthcare Interpreter

It might be difficult to get your first job as a healthcare interpreter unless you have accumulated some useful experience in the field. If you are determined to make a career of being a healthcare interpreter you can build up your profile by volunteering your services through organizations that regularly communicate with people who have limited proficiency in English. This includes organizations like the Red Cross which depends on volunteers in order to provide its interpreting services. Once you have built up your experience you will be ready to take the examination that qualifies you to be a certified medical interpreter.

Conclusion

Overall, a healthcare interpreter is vital for the normal running of a hospital, but it’s important that a healthcare interpreter program has been completed so that the healthcare interpreter has the knowledge to become fully certified.

It’s Time to Learn About Indian Art, Culture and the Hindi Language!

Namaste! With one of the largest populations on Earth, a billion strong, India is full of fascinating and often perplexing and contradictory facets. Indians have moved to every corner of the globe. They are truly global citizens, but most have a place in their hearts for their homeland and Indian art and culture.

India is full of superlatives: it is big geographically; its history spans the centuries; its literature, religions, languages, art, cuisine and culture are second to none in complexity and richness. It would take years of academic study to learn even a smidgeon of the history and cultural heritage of India, but as a casual visitor to the sub-continent, you cannot fail to be impressed by everything you come across. Although an attempt to master India’s main national lingua franca, Hindi, will mean you win friends and smiles wherever you go, you will find that many Indians will speak English, often as well as you!

You will find it easy to get into conversation in often the most unlikely places, like the platform of a railway station or a humble village restaurant. These present opportunities to learn about Indian society and culture at close hand.

Many Indians will have relatives overseas or will have spent time working, or studying abroad themselves. Wherever you travel in India, from the hot and humid South to the mountains of the Himalayas and the Ganges basin, you will everywhere be reminded of the history of Indian culture.

Learning the Hindi Language

Hindi (मानक हिन्दी) is one of India’s two official languages, although there are literally dozens of regional languages across the sub-continent. Most Indians speak their own language or dialect and Hindi and many also speak English, India’s other official language, too.

There is no easy way to learn Hindi unless you are brought up in India or amongst one of the many international communities of Indians in the international diaspora. Linguistically, Hindi shares an affinity with other Indo-Aryan languages like Punjabi and Urdu and like these languages has its roots in Sanskrit. It is more remotely related to other Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages like Farsi, Tajik, Pashto, even English.

Hindi has its own unique script, Devanagari, which you will see all over India. It looks nothing like Latin script, though! There is no easy way how to learn Hindi easily as it means learning the spoken language as well as the written one.

Development of science and technology in India

After independence, the development of science and technology in India was swiftly promoted by Jawaharlal Nehru. The first Indian Institute of Technology was established in 1951 in West Bengal. Technological development in India has since gone ahead in leaps and bounds. India accounts for 10% of Asia’s spending on research and development on science and technology, although it still lags behind the spending of developed countries.

There are now many advances in the latest technology in India, such as developments in nanotechnology. In 2017, it was reported that India was ranked third in the world in this field after the U.S. and China.

Different Indian festivals

Although the most important religion in India is the Hindu religion, in fact there are many other religions scattered across the country. Each of these religions has its own unique and often colourful festivals. If you visit India, you will certainly want to experience at least one of them! Here are some of the major festivals of India.

Diwali

Of all the important festivals in India, Diwali must be the best known. It’s also called tghe Festival of Light and celebrates the triumph of good over evil. In most parts of India and in many other countries where there are substantial numbers of Hindus. Diwali spans several days of festivities. You can tell when Diwali is about to happen because homes and businesses will be stocking up on all manner of lights and other decorations like flowers.

Holi

A list of Hindu festivals wouldn’t be complete without Holi. Like Diwali it is celebrated in slightly different ways across India because of the different ways the holy Hindu scripts, the Bhagavad Vita are interpreted. It is also called the Festival of Colours.

Eid Ul Fitr

Ramadan is not a Hindu festival as such, but a Moslem period every year of abstinence. For a month, Indian Moslems and Moslems everywhere around the world abstain from food, drink, smoking and sex a. It is a time that Moslems remind themselves about patience and humility and their relationship with God. The end of Ramadan is marked by Eid Ul Fitr, the most important festival on the Moslem calendar.

Historical places in India

With hundreds of years of recorded history, it stands to reason that there is a legacy of historical monuments of India scattered across the country. Some of these date back to the pre-Hindu and Buddhist era and others to the many different empires that have ruled the sub-continent through the ages, but most famous historical places in India relate to the predominant Hindu religion and culture.

Probably the holiest of India’s historical places is the city of Varanasi by the Ganges. It is known as India’s ‘oldest living city.’ Varanasi is principally a place of spiritualism and pilgrimage for devout Hindus and a visit to the city is a reminder of the huge importance and significance that India’s most important river is to its people.

The Taj Mahal is probably the single most well known historical monument of India, at least outside India. It is not a Hindu monument, but this magnificent palace was built in the Moghul era by Emperor Shah Jahan as a testament of his love for the Empress.

The Golden Temple in Amritsar in the Punjab, is a beautiful Sikh temple and a testament to the creed of hospitality of Indian Sikhs.

Indian Food

Few people have never tried Indian food. Indians from all over the country have taken their rich range of cuisine with them to delight the palates of hungry and discerning restaurant goers all over the world; India is best known for its huge range of spices, herbs, vegetables and fruits which have been used to give Indian food its distinctive flavour and texture;

Indian meals are traditionally based on rice, but this is usually replaced by chapattis and roti in the North where wheat is the most common grain.

Most Hindu and Buddhist disges tend to be vegetarian based, but lamb, goat, fish and chicken are used depending on what is locally available;

Main meals may be accompanied by tea (chai) or yoghurt based fruit drinks like lassi. Indian sweets and desserts are understandably famous and often very brightly coloured!

Conclusion

Hopefully, this brief introduction to one of the world’s great cultures is enough to whet your appetite. From Bollywood to Indian food, Hindu festivals to historical monuments, you can guarantee that a visit to India will be an exhaustingly absorbing experience! Even if you only remember to say “Namaste,” an attempt to learn India’s most important language, Hindi, will be richly rewarded as an insight to Indian art, culture and religion as well as the modern life of an emerging regional superpower, and don’t forget The Migration Translators offers fast, efficient, Hindi translations of any documents you need translating to or from India’s most important language.

Three Benefits of Translating E-Commerce Products

If you are thinking of marketing your products online to a global market it’s not worth the effort unless you translate the information about your products into the language of your proposed market. There are two main things you need to get your e-commerce products globally mobile, one is the translation of products and two is the localization of products. Before you can start with the localization which is getting both your website and your product to meet the global market you need to translate your product information first. This information can then be adapted to meet the requirements of localisation.

Benefits of Translating your e-commerce Products

1. More Sales than Non Translated Product

Before making a purchasing decision, 56 percent of potential e-commerce customers indicate that their first consideration is learning about the product in their own language. This is in fact more important than the price of the product. In the EU, when it comes to booking tours or hotels, 80 percent say that they must read the promotional material in their own language first before deciding to buy. This is the first reason for translating your website.

2.More Customer Loyalty through Translated Product

One of the things that ensures regular income for a business is customer loyalty. Once you have got a customer interested in your product because of your e-commerce product translation so they can understand it in their own language, they will go back to your site over and over again because they know what to expect. It’s loyalty that brings in consistent sales.

3.Better than your competitors

An e-commerce translation of your products puts you ahead of your competitors, which offers you a better chance of determining the price of your product. Your brand will begin to stand out in the international market if customers know your website is easy to understand and you are reliable. This information will likely be shared on social media sites so you can expect even better sales.

If you don’t translate your e-commerce products you can only expect to sell your products to those who understand the language of your website. Customers are savvy and won’t let go over money unless they are sure the product is what they really want. Appearance and language on your website that suits your intended customer puts you ahead of the rest and grows your business’s revenue.

Reasons Why we Really Did Need a New Translation of “The Odyssey”

Because Homer’s Odyssey has turned out to be such an influential work of Western literature, it has been translated at least 60 times from Greek to English. Emily Wilson has just published yet another Odyssey translation.

Why was this Translation Really Necessary?

Basically, Emily Wilson is the first female translator to translate this work into English. Who the translator is can make a great difference to the interpretation of a text. This is because often a translator’s own biases and beliefs can have at least some effect on the overall translation of something like the Odyssey. Wilson stated that the aim of the translation was to get out the truth of the content of the Odyssey.  She believes that there is a relationship between gender and translation, especially in something as ancient as the Odyssey, where there are links between when engaging poetry in translation.

Gender and its Relationship to Translation

In Wilson’s translation of the Odyssey where Odysseus demands the death penalty for all the slave girls who had slept with Penelope’s suitors, previous translations offer a different translation.  The girls are not referred to as slaves, but as “whores”, “sluts” and “creatures. Slavery was common in that era of ancient Greek history. Earlier translations of The Odyssey called them “maidservants.” In a New York Times report, Wilson says this idea is not only misleading but is not a literal translation either.

Wilson has aimed at the story being more accessible to today’s reader. It seems that her translation of certain aspects of the Odyssey may be upsetting to some; particularly in the way she has translated “polytropos,” the Greek word which is used at the start of the poem to describe Odysseus. “Polytropos” means literally “many turns” but earlier translators have chosen “sagacious” and “crafty” and a “man of twists and turns”. This shows how a poem interpretation is so dependent on whom the translator is.

Even though she may have added some freshness to some of the old fashioned language used in the original poem, she has managed to keep her version of the translation to the same number of lines that were used in the original Greek poem. She has also carefully replicated the rhythm of the original poem as well.

Some of the most difficult and contentious translations are those in the literature field because the original version of the text was created by someone who wanted to put across unique ideas.