The Connection between Transcription and Translation

Transcription is a specialized task in which someone’s speech is written down as accurately as possible. The person who does the writing down is called the transcriber. The most difficult transcription is when the transcriber has to record what has been spoken directly at the same time that the person is actually speaking. There is no chance to hear the speech a second time, especially if the transcription is taking place in a public place where there may be many people listening. Some transcribers make a recording of the person’s speech, then do the transcription later in their own time. This is a lot easier, assuming that the recording is of reasonable quality, as the audio recording can be played over and over again until as much as possible of the person’s words can be transcribed.

There are also many occasions when the transcriber is also a translator and must listen to someone speaking in a language that is not their own language and will need to both transcribe and translate it. Note that the difference between immediate transcription and remote transcription as far as translators are concerned is the same. The translator who is also a transcriber would find listening to a recorded speech would find it easier to do the translation part of the task than having to listen carefully and simultaneously transcribe and translate at the same time. The transcriber may then opt to transcribe the person’s words directly into text using the speaker’s language then perform the translation part later by consulting what they have written down.

The transcriber/translator is somewhere between a pure translator and an interpreter. Translators normally work with text. This is in some ways easier than what interpreters have to do, but it would be expected that translators would normally achieve a higher degree of accuracy. Interpreters listen to someone speaking and then convert the speech into the desired second language. Interpreters’ end product then is audio, while translators’ is text. It’s not really possible for either transcribers or interpreters to produce a totally accurate version of the spoken word, so the aim is to be as accurate as possible rather than aim for total accuracy.

When are transcribers/translators needed?

There are very many uses for transcriber /translators and the demand for good quality transcription and translation services is constantly growing. Here are a few examples of where this service is needed:

As with many translations and interpreting services, there is a strong tendency for specialization in the transcription/ translation industry. This does mean that if you are on the lookout for a transcription/translation service it is important to use the service that specializes in your own field.

The effect of Covid-19 on demand for transcription

Because of social distancing rules in many, if not most countries, as well as the almost impossible ability to travel across borders, there has been a huge rise in virtual or online meetings and conferences of all types. This has inevitably meant that there is an associated huge growth in demand for good-quality transcribers and translators to record what is said at these events. Transcriptions of meetings and conferences can then be translated into multiple languages and distributed by email to participants without the need for risking infection.

COVID-19, Global Pandemics and the Role of Medical Translators and Interpreters

The 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic swept unabated throughout the world, taking down 2 percent of the world’s population which was approximately 50 million people. One thing that would have been different back in 1918 was the availability of skilled medical translators and interpreters. Translation of course isn’t a new discipline but in 1918 the world was far less globalized. The key question is, whether the availability of skilled medical translators and interpreters has helped to lower the incidence of COVID-19.

The 1918 pandemic taught the world something and that was that some immediate action had to be taken to stop a similar outbreak from losing so many lives. It was organizations like the World Health Organisation that was founded from the necessity to have a common body to oversee health trouble spots around the world so measures could be taken to aid or eliminate the problem. As soon as an event of global significance rears its ugly head then world specialists are on to it as quickly as possible, partly to prevent global economic collapse when people are too sick to work. However, shared information has to be translated so all those experts know what their counterparts are doing in other countries. All relevant information must be fully and accurately translated so it can be shared by the relevant agencies in the global community.

There is always a possibility of more deadly global pandemics

The current COVID-19 pandemic reveals how fast an outbreak can spread throughout the world and it is helped along by air flight that is both potentially useful but also can prolong pandemics.

Many countries that are the most susceptible to the onslaught of a global pandemic speak more than one language like the United States. There is a high proportion of people who are linguistically deficient in English in the U.S. because they prefer to speak their native language like Spanish and are even employed in workplaces where the majority of the workers speak Spanish. Not many people have heard Donald Trump when addressing the nation speaking any other language except English. When he is giving out his latest guidelines for attacking COVID-19, every US citizen has to know about it otherwise they could be breaking the law if laws enacted are broken due to a language misunderstanding.

Global medical translation and medical interpreting

Medical translation and medical interpreting have become key instruments in the scientific, academic, and medical research that quickly started throughout the world following the global spread of COVID-19. In key areas like the medical industry, human translators are the only ones fully qualified to do a good job. Some countries or health care providers think it is okay to use machine translations because it is easy and fast to get results. However, even when presented with a less complex text the machine translation only gives a literal translation. It fails to capture the nuances or subtle meanings that are so easy for a human translator to translate.

When global pandemics are spreading a disease quickly around the world translation services are the key component to enable an integrated global response. Whether the current virus has found itself into meat processing plants, a hospital or care home if there are people involved who don’t speak English then the key to effective communication is through translations so that all can understand what’s going on.

The refugee crisis and a pandemic

Many refugees who pour into Germany may be able to speak neither English nor German making communication an impossible event. The host country has to quickly source translators and interpreters to keep the refugees informed

The role of translation services in a global crisis

Employing a professional translation service and skilled language interpreters is essential to enable a fast response in a global disaster. Economic disruption may be mitigated by distributing information concerning how to prevent and spread a virus so that people can continue to work and function as near to normal as possible. Even of more importance is getting information related to research, data, and analysis translated and then distributed to all relevant scientific, academic, and medical communities throughout the world.

Important Facts About Transcreation

What is Transcreation?

Transcreation is a relatively new idea. It is adopting a message used in one language into another, taking into account the intention, style, context and tone of the original message. A well-transcreated message will evoke exactly the same emotions and will project the same implications in both the target language and the source language.

Transcreation is used more and more by businesses for their advertising campaigns for the global market. A well-transcreated advertisement will incorporate the language and culture of the targeted market. It is not just words that transcreation handles it considers the images that are included in the creative message by making sure they fit in with the local market that is being targeted. When does someone ask what is a translation? it can be explained by using other phrases such as:

  • creative translations;
  • localization;
  • international copy adaptations;
  • marketing translations;
  • internationalization;
  • free-style translations;
  • cultural adaptations.

The above words and phrases basically take the essence of a message and re-create it into a second language. The term transcreation actually originates from the combining of two words which are creation and translation. In a nutshell, transcreation isn’t just translating a message word for word. Creativity is used in a process where the transcreation agency employs professionals who specialise in considering the cultural variations that exist in different countries and make the most of them so that the marketing message benefits the business.

The Origins of the Word ‘Transcreation’

It was in the 1960s and 70s when the word transcreation was first coined and it was used in relation to the translation of creative advertisements. Transcreation agencies then started to take the term a step further and use it for the translation of highly creative language. These agencies used transcreation as a way of distinguishing their translation services from the more general translations offered by translation services.

Today, transcreation is now in its element and is used by transcreation agencies and marketing companies as a service offered to businesses who want to penetrate the global market and attract the global customer to buy their products.

An Example of a Transcreation Project

In 2004, Marvel Comics & the Gotham Entertainment Group produced a comic book for Indian customers which featured a Spider-Man who was born in India called Pavitr Prabhakar. Prabhakar, dressed in a dhoti takes on Rakshasa, a demon, against backdrops like Taj Mahal, not New York City. The CEO of Marvel Comics & the Gotham Entertainment Group said it was the first transcreation of a Western concept of Spider-Man made relevant to an Indian audience, attracting Indians to buy the comic book.

The Role of the Transcreation Agency

Most transcreative work is performed by a transcreation agency mainly for the advertising industry such as the production of, posters, flyers and brochures, TV & radio advertisements aimed at potential customers. Increasingly, transcreation is used on websites. In order to be effective, advertising has to touch both the hearts and minds of the potential customer.

Transcreative work, conducted by a transcreation agency, transcends both cultural and language boundaries in order to achieve a global marketing strategy that is effective. The copy needs to be translated well in the first place but taking into consideration other factors like mores, culture, dialects, humour and context are key to successful transcreation.

If an advertisement appears to lack any respect for local values, cultures and beliefs the transcreation agency will have failed as this sort of advertising would have a negative effect on any potential customers. Companies realise the importance of transcreation so to meet the challenges they choose to use a translation agency to produce their global advertising materials.

Who Produces Transcreation?

The majority of transcreation is undertaken by copywriters who specialise in transcreation. Generally, a successful transcreation is performed by somebody who shares the same native language as the targeted audience. In order for effective transcreation to be produced the native language copywriters are required to have a great deal of knowledge of the targeted market, perfect language skills, and be creative when adapting the message for the targeted market.

In summary, transcreation is more than translation because its focus is not on the literal text, but on getting the same emotional response in the new targeted market as it would get from those who speak the source language. Due to the use of idiom and the variety of the local usage of language word to word translations are no longer considered to be adequate. This means the best translation will consider not only grammar, vocabulary and syntax but also idiomatic and local usages of language by the targeted audience while including the context and text of the source document. This has all developed in relation to the demands of global markets where companies compete to sell their goods to unfamiliar markets.

Changing the Way We Learn Languages

How Netflix can help to transform the learning of languages is being tested in schools as there has been a significant fall in interest in learning languages. For decades, people who have been eager to learn English have helped their learning by watching dramas put on by the BBC and even Hollywood movies. Now there is Netflix, which is being used as a new online tool that transforms the streaming service into a comfortable language lab.

The tool ‘Language Learning With Netflix’ (LLN), lets viewers watch foreign language productions which have subtitles in both the original language of the production and English. The tool automatically pauses to let the learner absorb what’s just been heard. It is so popular that downloads have been in the tens of thousands since last December, its launch date.

Netflix Offers Programmes in 190 Countries Covering 26 Languages

Because fewer and fewer pupils were showing an interest in learning new languages linguists believe LNN is a great tool and has education potential as its programmes grow in numbers.

The LLN tool has been developed by two people called David Wilkinson and Ognjen Apic, who started the hobby some time ago. Once they had launched a Chrome browser extension, more and more people saw the benefit and have since downloaded the LAN tool. Wilkinson believes that as soon as possible students should be listening to their chosen language and at the same time there listening should be complemented by a good translation.

Even though Wilkinson was a mechanical engineer by training, he set up a business selling and marketing bilingual books. Three years ago he began his work on LLN. He found like-minded Serbian linguist, Ognjen Apic, who he teamed up with to work on Netflix. The streaming service offers a big range of programmes in many foreign languages, such as Suburra, the Italian crime drama, Blood on Rome, an Israeli based political thriller and the Oscar award-winning film called Roma, based in Mexico City.

What does LLN do for Language Learners?

LLN helps the user to take in the language which he or she is trying to master by letting them view 2 translations at the same time. One is a mechanical automatic translation based more on the literal meaning, while the second has been translated by someone who really understands the idiom of the language. Up to now, there is no certainty that the LLN will reverse the decline in language learning as one of the problems in schools, at least in many English speaking countries, that there is no compulsion for pupils to learn a second language. In Britain, for example, this change in the language learning requirement led to a drastic fall in pupils who wish to study German and French. Other specialists in the language learning field, like Katharina von Ruckteschell-Katte, who is the current director of London’s Goethe-Institut, have observed that making language learning more fun through the use of new tools like LLN certainly should encourage learning a 2nd language. They are a replacement for the human teacher, but this isn’t necessarily a bad thing.

Apps Help Language Learning Too

There is not just LLN and Netflix that are seemingly helping language learners, as there are a variety of apps available now like Babbel, Memrise, and Duolingo. These alone attract 13 million users in Britain and this is increasing every day. Duolingo revealed that since early in 2017 there have been 38% increases in British users studying French and 34% increases in users studying German.

Sam Dalsimer, the head of PR at Duolingo, says that LLN is great for learners who have some basic knowledge already of the language they intend to learn. He believes LLN and Duolingo are great companions for learning languages.

Real Teachers are the Only Teachers

Mickael Pointecouteau, who is the course manager for the London base of Alliance Française, believes apps and LLN are not a good substitute for a real teacher. They are too passive and lack the ability to promote proper oral exchanges in the languages being learned.

What is Planned for the Future?

At the moment, the duo of Wilkinson and Apic are considering branching out into platforms like Amazon Video, They are creating a tool for that at the moment. They are including an option that transliterates both Mandarin and Japanese into Romanised subtitles and are working on programmes to provide subtitle translations for the original language.

Languages Ready to Learn Using Netflix

  • Catalan, in the film Benvinguts a la Família, which is a dark comedy that acts out a family that faces eviction out of their home.
  • Dutch, in the film Bankier van het Verzet, which is a 2nd world war film based on Dutch resistance.
  • Filipino, in Kita Kita, which is a romantic comedy based on a tour guide who ends up blind when her fiance cheated on her.
  • Icelandic, in Andið eðlilega, which is a drama based on a tie between a single mum and an asylum seeker.
  • Tamil, in Radiopetti, which is a drama featuring a partly deaf elderly man and a valve radio given to him by his father.

So the future will determine whether these new methods of learning or being exposed to another language are successful in encouraging language learning or not. Maybe, particularly at a young age, making language learning compulsory in schools is the only way a country can be assured it has some citizens could become bilingual.

The Highest Paid Languages for Translations

Today, more than ever before, the world has become a global village. However, this doesn’t mean there is a single global language as there isn’t. As a result, translators are in high demand as people are keen to know what others are saying and eager to communicate for a wide variety of reasons. Not anyone can be a translator as it’s a highly skilled job. To get the best paying jobs you need to choose one of the most in-demand languages for jobs. These are as follows:


German is considered to be one of the highest paid languages for translation. A German translator can be expected to receive a yearly income of over £34,000. There is a big demand for English to German translators and vice versa because Germany and Britain are big trading partners, so business and financial translations are in high demand.


Arabic translators earn a little more than German translators on average. This is because many of the translations are linked to requirements from wealthy oil-rich countries.


French translators are paid well too, as they are a key trading country in Europe. They can expect to receive on average more than £32,000 per annum.


Dutch isn’t as highly paid as some other languages as it’s not spoken as much. However, the country is involved in a lot of international business so this is where there is a demand for Dutch translators.


Spanish is a language that is spoken by more than 400 million native speakers. It is also the second language of another 9 million. Spanish translators are paid well as there is a great demand for their services throughout the world.


Japan without a doubt makes its mark on the world economy even though the language is more or less confined to Japan. It’s a popular language to learn because the Japanese not only travel but they conduct business transactions throughout the world.


A Russian translator can expect to earn about £28,658 annually as Russia becomes more and more involved in the world economy.


Italians left Italy in their droves and found new countries to settle in after the 2nd World War. Today, Italian is the 4th most popular language spoken in the United States. A good translator is both in demand and in the top 9 for annual income.


Even though Chinese is one of the most commonly spoken global languages being a translator doesn’t necessarily mean high pay. An experienced translator of Mandarin could be rewarded with as much as £28,160 annually.

Which language course is best for a career?

If you are thinking about learning a second language fluently enough to be a translator once you have mastered the language, don’t just look at pay. You have to think about what exposure you are likely to get to foreign language careers in high demand, apart from attending courses.

The best courses for learning a language used to be only available at a college or university. Today, you can master a language online using resources like Babel and Rosetta Stone.

What is a Certified Healthcare Interpreter and Why Is It Required For Hospitals?

Hospital interpreters have increased in numbers over the years due to more and more people ending up in countries who are not completely fluent in the host country’s language. The main aim of a healthcare interpreter is to provide an interpretation service in his or her pair of languages to those who need to access medical services but their competence in English, for example, is not good enough to understand in order to be able to competently provide the medical services that are required.

The medical professionals that a patient may need to communicate with effectively include:

  • doctors,
  • nurses,
  • other hospital staff.

Who provides a healthcare interpreter is decided by the medical facility that needs them. Increasingly local and federal governments are providing funding for a healthcare interpreter to be made available as required. They don’t always have to be physically present in the hospital, as sometimes video conferencing can be set up to provide the interpretation. Phone calls can be used as well.

Proficiency of a Healthcare Interpreter

It’s typically quite normal for a hospital interpreter to be fluent in two languages. In some cases, a healthcare interpreter may have studied healthcare terminology in both languages so they can deliver the best job possible for patients who have limited competency in English. It’s possible to become a certified healthcare interpreter by following a medical interpreter programme. This gives the healthcare interpreter the responsibility of being able to certify their healthcare interpretations. This is sometimes required when the medical document being interpreted and explained to the patient is an informed consent form. This needs to be accurate otherwise it may provide wrong information to the patient that could cause unnecessary stress.

When a healthcare interpreter attends a medical interpreter programme s/he will be taught that it’s important to be aware of the cultural differences that exist between people. They will also be taught how important it is to keep all information about the patients they interpret for confidential. Most hospitals publish their policies on patient confidentiality.

Qualities of a Healthcare Interpreter

A healthcare interpreter needs to be all of the following:

  • punctual,
  • communicative,
  • reliable,
  • sensitive to the multicultural environment.

The healthcare interpreter who focuses on maintaining good interpersonal relationships is likely to be successful and will excel as a healthcare interpreter. Apart from these skills he or she needs to have a high level of understanding and be able to understand complex information that is used in the medical setting. This also includes conforming to any written guidelines and hospital policies with regard to the healthcare setting.

Medical Interpreter Programme

Interpreters possess a high level of skills ranging and are often qualified up to degree level. There are some schools that offer medical interpreter certificate programmes. These programmes can be studied either at a college campus or online whatever is preferred.

What is a Certified Healthcare Interpreter Programme?

There are a few states in the U.S. which require a healthcare interpreter to be certified. In order to become certified, there are a number of certification programs available if a healthcare interpreter has completed no less than 40 hours of training to become a healthcare interpreter. To become certified it’s necessary to pass the oral component of the certification process. In the U.S., the National Board for Certification of Medical Interpreters offers a credential called Certified Medical Interpreter. To qualify for this, each healthcare interpreter needs to have successfully undertaken and completed a medical interpreter program, have passed an examination prove proficiency in no less than two languages.

Gain Experience to Enhance your Career as a Healthcare Interpreter

It might be difficult to get your first job as a healthcare interpreter unless you have accumulated some useful experience in the field. If you are determined to make a career of being a healthcare interpreter you can build up your profile by volunteering your services through organizations that regularly communicate with people who have limited proficiency in English. This includes organizations like the Red Cross which depends on volunteers in order to provide its interpreting services. Once you have built up your experience you will be ready to take the examination that qualifies you to be a certified medical interpreter.


Overall, a healthcare interpreter is vital for the normal running of a hospital, but it’s important that a healthcare interpreter program has been completed so that the healthcare interpreter has the knowledge to become fully certified.

The Role of Brand Translation

What is Branding?

When you go out to your local shopping centre to buy a product you often get completely overwhelmed by all the different names that are used for what basically seems to be the same product. There is a very good reason for this and that’s because a business wants you to recognise its own brand.
When a company sets out for the first time marketing for example peanut butter with a secret ingredient no one knows the company so it chooses a name for the products it produces. This is so anyone who happens to choose the product and ends up liking it will be able to identify it again by its brand name.
If the brand name doesn’t seem a lot different from others the buyer will have difficulty differentiating products, so in the end the company won’t achieve much. It has to have a brand label that can be picked out easily. A brand name change may be necessary if a competitor chooses a similar type of branding.
Creating awareness through a brand name means an accurate translation
The more work a company puts into creating a brand and identity the more likely it is to create an awareness of it. For example, even without adding any additional language, Coca-Cola is familiar throughout the world. The brand defines itself through its red colour and the presence of the can or bottle to hold the liquid. This is certainly identity and branding revealing itself in the best way possible. What’s most important too is that when a brand is marketed overseas any slogans used may need a brand translation that correctly represents the brand. Slogans are hard to translate accurately unless an experienced human translator does the job and it’s not left in the hands of a machine translation tool.
There have been several incidences when poor translators have been used for a brand translation. This is mainly the result of a brand slogan being translated in a way that makes it culturally sensitive or even offensive. This sort of translation mistake can ruin a company’s brand and taint its reputation so a brand name change may be necessary.
Conclusion- Why Brand Translation is Important
Branding is one method of identifying a product to consumers so they know what the packaging and labelling looks like when they enter a store. When it comes to marketing overseas the company has to be very careful who it chooses to do a brand translation because it needs to be sure any translation fits the brand perfectly.

Unusual Languages Where Translation May Still Be Required

It’s not too difficult to find a translator who can translate your text into a more commonly used language but when it comes to unusual languages like the African languages of Acholi, Ewe, Dzongkha, or Mien this can be quite a challenge!
Often, less spoken languages are found in poorer parts of the world where there are few speakers and the educational level of the population is poor. This means it’s rare to find a good language translator who has the skills to translate from or into his or her lesser-known and more unusual native language into a language such as English. Finding an online resource to do the job of translating these less well-known languages into other languages is a feat in itself, let alone finding an experienced translator with these skills.

What Do You Do When Seeking a Translation of an Unusual Language?

There is always someone trying to find a niche, whatever the industry. So you could probably find someone who does speak the unusual language, but isn’t necessarily that competent in English. Even an experienced language services provider (LSP) may not be of much use as they too may have difficulty accessing speakers of unusual languages.
This doesn’t mean they won’t attempt to find somebody to do the translation job as they will have a good go. They will spend time searching through their database of translators until they come across somebody who has the competency to do the translation job. Basically, when it comes to making the decision of who to hire for your unusual translation you take a chance that the translator you eventually hire has the ability to do at least a readable translation.

How Professional Language Service Providers Translate Unusual Languages

They will try to use whatever technology they have to ease the difficulty of finding a competent translator for the unusual language pair. They will, of course, integrate the resources that come with machine translation (MT) but machine translators need to have been inputted with information before they can be used effectively. The chances are with an unusual language that the machine translator won’t have sufficient information stored as this type of device tends to work only when a huge amount of translated content has been completed, analyzed, and stored so that when accessed it can generate a translation with the help of all the stored information.
Once you have chosen your translation services to translate your text from an unusual language into English you will just have to sit back and hope you have made the right decision.

The 6 Most Translated Songs of All Time

1. Pop songs
When it comes to song translation of pop songs “This Too Shall Pass” sung by the United States rock band OK Go is the most translated pop song of all time. It was first released in 2010 and was heard often in a variety of shows, like the television series “My Generation” and “The Vampire Diaries.” It was heard also in the movie ‘Vow’s soundtrack which was first released in 2012. This song can be heard in 18 different languages.

2. Christmas Carols
For Christmas carols, “Silent Night” comes out first as the most translated song translation and this is in more than 100 languages. Joseph Mohr, an Austrian pastor wrote the original song. The music to the song was composed by the choir director and organist Franz Xaver Grube. The first title for this carol was “Stille Nacht, Heilige Nacht.” It was first heard in 1818 on Christmas Eve at Oberndorf in St. Nicholas Church.

3. Hymns
“Amazing Grace.” a hymn written by clergyman and poet John Newton in 1779, has had the honor of having its song translated into 50 or more languages which include Spanish, German, Inuit, Russian, French, Cherokee, and English.

4. Children’s Songs
“It’s a Small World (After All),” written by The Sherman Brothers in 1963, was written for a Disney production but it wasn’t under copyright rules. It has since been translated into more than 25 languages and is one of the most translated songs for children.

5. Birthday Songs
In 1998, the Guinness Book of World Records stated that the song, “Happy Birthday to You” has the status as being the most recognized English song in English. Patty Hill, a Kentucky kindergarten principal, with her sister wrote this song in 1893. It has been translated into at least 30 languages, which is one of the most translated songs for birthdays.

6. Folk Songs
The most translated Filipino song “Anak” was written by Freddie Aguilar, a folk singer and means daughter or son was first sung in Manila in 1977 at the 1st Metropop Song Festival when it became a finalist. By 2015 it has been translated into 27 languages one of the most translated songs in the folk song genre it has been and released in 56 countries around the world. It was a song featured in “Gangnam Blues,” a South Korean film.

What Is Technical Translation?

Technical translation is a specialised branch of translation which involves the translation of technical documents from one language into another. By technical documents may be meant medical, scientific, engineering documents and any other documents that may require specialised knowledge of the subject and its terminology.

The degree of difficulty involved depends on the subject matter. This can vary immensely from short descriptions of how to use a particular drug through to lengthy scientific research papers and technical manuals.

Generally, it would be expected that technical translation is done by technical translators. These may be freelancers who have started their career in a particular technical field, such as the medical profession, then diverted into translation at some point. Technical translation agencies may provide different types of technical translation to suit most needs.

Technical translation is difficult to work and requires a level of accuracy that may not be necessary for other types of translation. Technical translators are usually already well qualified in their particular field and tend to expect a higher rate of payment for their work than more general translators.

In addition to the higher cost of technical translation, it would be expected that the turnaround time for technical translation would be longer than for simpler translation tasks.

Perhaps surprisingly, it may be noted that technical translation tasks lend themselves more readily to automated translation software than other types of translation. This is because the language tends to be highly structured without room for personal nuance. The language used, whatever the actual language will always be the standard language used in the country, not a local dialect. The text will not be subject to colloquialisms and subjective expression. The use of translation memory (TM) and glossaries, while not replacing the value of the technical translator, serve to speed up translation, provide a level of consistency in multiple translation tasks and overall provide a cheaper, yet no less accurate product.